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Author Daukantas, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution: The Problem and the Possible Solutions Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Optics and Photonics News Abbreviated Journal Optics & Photonics News  
  Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 30  
  Keywords light pollution; public policy  
  Abstract Over the past quarter-century, scientists have become increasingly aware of the problems that light pollution causes for astronomers, migrating birds and human health and safety. Finding effective means to reduce the effects will take the combined efforts of research scientists, lighting engineers, architects, city planners, businesspeople and homeowners.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1047-6938 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 245  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R.; Pick, K.; Selders, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title From The Ground Up I: Light Pollution Sources in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 185-203  
  Keywords light pollution; Flagstaff; Arizona; measurements; lighting policy; public policy  
  Abstract We develop an estimate of the complete outdoor lighting of Flagstaff Arizona, as well as lighting-use densities (lumens per acre) for a number of different land uses. We find a total outdoor light output of 173 million lumens (Mlm) including sports lighting, and 139 Mlm without sports lighting, with an uncertainty of about 7%. The average fraction escaping directly upward from light fixtures is estimated to be 8.3%. After correcting approximately for near-ground blocking described in the accompanying paper by Luginbuhl et al., total uplight is estimated at 17.9 Mlm or 12.2 Mlm with and without sports lighting, respectively. Of these 17.9 Mlm, 33% arise from sports lighting, when it is on; when sports lighting is off, commercial and industrial lighting account for 62% with the remainder dominated by residential (14%) and roadway lighting (12%). We show that the 1989 Flagstaff lighting code that limited total outdoor lighting on new construction has reduced the growth rate of lighting, resulting in a 17% growth in light escaping into the sky from 1989 to 2003, compared to a 43% increase expected if the 1989 code had not been enacted. If all legally nonconforming lighting installed before 1989 were to be brought into compliance with the code, we would expect sky glow in Flagstaff to actually decrease by 36% compared to that in 2003; if all lighting, including residential, could be converted to fully shielded fixtures, sky glow would decrease to about half the current value. The implications for the most effective ways to address sky glow through lighting codes are discussed.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 246  
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Rinne, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Voices for the darkness: online survey on public perceptions on light pollution as an environmental problem Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 127-139  
  Keywords environmental management; light pollution; public perceptions; survey; public policy  
  Abstract Light pollution is increasingly affecting ecosystems and human health. We present results from an online survey aimed to chart what aspects of lighting are considered harmful and how light pollution is perceived by the public. We focus on affluent societies by using Finland as an example of a northern industrialised country. The survey generated 2053 responses, particularly from well-educated urban persons living in residential areas and interested in astronomy or environmental issues. The results show that the lighting of residential areas and lighting serving traffic are considered the most common sources of light pollution while commercial lighting is perceived as the most annoying form of light use. Respondents commonly considered light pollution as a disturbance for outdoor recreation and relaxation. The results suggest that the ecological and health effects of light pollution emphasised by the research are poorly known by the people emphasising the aesthetic aspects. The results indicate relatively wide but passive acceptance for policy measures aimed at reducing light pollution.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1943-815X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 248  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Boyce, P.; Fotios, S.; Richards, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting and energy saving Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 245-260  
  Keywords public policy; roadway lighting; energy consumption  
  Abstract This paper examines how the lighting of roads in the UK might be changed so as to preserve the benefits while minimising energy consumption. It is divided into four sections, these being changes in technology, changes in patterns of use, changes in standards and contracts and changes in the basis of design. Useful changes in technology and patterns of use are available now, but their use will raise the question as to whether or not environmental considerations can override conventional financial constraints. Changes in standards and the basis of design are much more long term. Comparisons of road lighting standards used in different countries show significant differences that deserve examination. As for the basis of design, consideration of the importance of light to fatal and personal injury accidents of different types suggests that road lighting should be concentrated where pedestrians are common, not where speeds are highest. Ultimately, considering carefully what problem road lighting is intended to solve and whether or not road lighting is the best answer is the key to minimising the energy consumption of road lighting without diminishing road safety.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 249  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Boomsma, C.; Steg, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Feeling Safe in the Dark: Examining the Effect of Entrapment, Lighting Levels, and Gender on Feelings of Safety and Lighting Policy Acceptability Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Environment and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Environment and Behavior  
  Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 193-212  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This research examined to what extent physical factors, notably lighting and entrapment (blocked escape), and individual factors, notably gender, affect feelings of safety and the acceptability of reduced lighting levels. The authors reasoned that acceptability of reduced street lighting depends on perceived safety, which in turn depends on entrapment, lighting, and gender. Virtual representations of a residential street were used, systematically manipulating entrapment and lighting levels. As expected, people felt less safe in lower lighting and higher entrapment settings, and these settings were evaluated as less acceptable. Although women perceived a situation as less safe compared with men, the authors found no gender differences in acceptability, which extends previous research. Importantly, as hypothesized, perceived safety mediated the effect of lighting on acceptability levels, suggesting that people can accept lower lighting levels when social safety is not threatened.  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 252  
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