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Author Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 158 Issue Pages 410-419  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Birds migrating to and from breeding grounds in the United States and Canada are killed by the millions in collisions with lighted towers and their guy wires. Avian mortality at towers is highly variable across species, and the importance to each population depends on its size and trajectory. Building on our previous estimate of avian mortality at communication towers, we calculated mortality by species and by regions. To do this, we constructed a database of mortality by species at towers from available records and calculated the mean proportion of each species killed at towers within aggregated Bird Conservation Regions. These proportions were combined with mortality estimates that we previously calculated for those regions. We then compared our estimated bird mortality rates to the estimated populations of these species in the United States and Canada. Neotropical migrants suffer the greatest mortality; 97.4% of birds killed are passerines, mostly warblers (Parulidae, 58.4%), vireos (Vireonidae, 13.4%), thrushes (Turdidae, 7.7%), and sparrows (Emberizidae, 5.8%). Thirteen birds of conservation concern in the United States or Canada suffer annual mortality of 1–9% of their estimated total population. Of these, estimated annual mortality is >2% for Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii), Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum), Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor), and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). Avian mortality from anthropogenic sources is almost always reported in the aggregate (“number of birds killed”), which cannot detect the species-level effects necessary to make conservation assessments. Our approach to per species estimates could be undertaken for other sources of chronic anthropogenic mortality.  
  Address Communication towers; Mortality; Night lighting; Neotropical migrants; Collisions; Impact assessment; birds  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 54  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, B.; Curbelo, Á.J.; Pérez, A.; Marrero, S.; Negro, J.J.; Katzner, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors affecting mortality of shearwaters stranded by light pollution: Mortality of shearwaters attracted by light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim Conserv  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 519-526  
  Keywords Cory's shearwater; Calonectris diomedea; birds; petrels; collisions; animals  
  Abstract Every year and across the world, thousands of fledglings of different petrel species crash into human structures because they are disorientated by artificial lights during their first flights. As this phenomenon is rather predictable, rescue campaigns are organized to help birds to reach the ocean, but unfortunately, a low proportion gets hurt or dies. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, and the fact that the problem was detected a long time ago, little is known on this source of mortality. We have studied the factors (i.e. body condition, plumage development, fledging date and sex) influencing the mortality of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings stranded inland due to light pollution in Tenerife (Canary Islands) during two consecutive breeding seasons (2009 and 2010). Late fledglings showed lower values of a body condition index than early ones. No sex biases were detected, neither considering stranded birds overall, nor for recovery dates or in the body condition of rescued fledglings. Our results indicate that late birds stranded by lights showing abundant down are more susceptible to fatal collisions and that the lights do not selectively kill birds with lower body condition indices. An enhancement of veterinary care should be done during the last part of the fledging period when more fatal collisions occur, especially focused on fledglings with abundant down. More research to determine why some individuals end up disoriented around artificial lights and others do not is urgently needed to minimize or prevent fallouts.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 55  
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Author Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Gauthreaux, S.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Height, Guy Wires, And Steady-Burning Lights Increase Hazard Of Communication Towers To Nocturnal Migrants: A Review And Meta-Analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Auk Abbreviated Journal The Auk  
  Volume 125 Issue 2 Pages 485-492  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-8038 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 56  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wiltschko, W.; Munro, U.; Ford, H.; Wiltschko, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Red light disrupts magnetic orientation of migratory birds Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 364 Issue 6437 Pages 525-527  
  Keywords magnetoreception; birds; animals  
  Abstract The transduction mechanisms and the neurophysiological basis of magnetoreception in birds are still largely unexplained, even though the role of the magnetic compass in the orientation of birds is fairly well understood. The discussion on magnetoreception in birds and terrestrial vertebrates focuses mainly on two mechanisms: small particles of magnetite and biochemical bi-radical reactions of excited macromolecules. When the bi-radical hypothesis was first proposed, magnetic resonance phenomena in the retina were suggested as the primary processes, which led to the question of whether magnetoreception was light-dependent. Homing experiments and electrophysiological evidence from pigeons have produced evidence consistent with such a mechanism. An effect of the spectral composition of light on magnetic compass orientation in amphibians has recently been described: under blue light of 450 nm and below, newts oriented as they did under the full spectrum, whereas they showed a roughly 90° counterclockwise shift when tested under wavelengths at or above 500 nm. Here we report the first orientation tests on migratory birds under light of different wavelengths; the results suggest a light-dependent process that appears to differ from that reported in newts.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 58  
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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Green, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modeling artificial light viewed by fledgling seabirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 2 Issue 10 Pages art109  
  Keywords artificial light; fallout; Hydrobatidae; modeling; Newell's Shearwater; Procellariidae; Puffinus newelli; birds  
  Abstract Artificial light is increasing in coverage across the surface of our planet, impacting the behavioral ecology of many organisms. Attraction to sources of artificial light is a significant threat to certain fledgling shearwaters, petrels (Procellariidae), and storm-petrels (Hydrobatidae) on their first nocturnal flights to the sea. Disorientation by light can cause these birds to crash into vegetation or manmade structures, potentially resulting in death from physical injury, starvation, dehydration, predation by introduced predators, or collisions with vehicles. We developed a GIS-based method to model the intensity of artificial light that fledgling procellariids and hydrobatids could view en route to the ocean (to estimate the degree of threat that artificial light poses to these birds) and present two models for the island of Kauai as examples. These models are particularly relevant to the federally threatened Newell's Shearwater, or `A`o (Puffinus newelli), of which >30,000 fledglings have been collected in response to disorientation by lights on Kauai during the past 30 years. Our models suggest that there are few to no portions of Kauai from which young birds could fledge and not view light on their post-natal nocturnal flights, which is concerning given evidence of a Newell's Shearwater population decline. In future work using this technique, night light intensity layers could be altered to model the effects of modified coastal light conditions on known and potential procellariid and hydrobatid breeding locations. Furthermore, certain methods presented herein may be applicable to other seabirds and additional taxa in which attraction to anthropogenic light poses a serious threat, including migratory passerines and hatchling marine turtles. Components of this modeling approach could potentially be used to spatially estimate effects of other point-source threats to ecological systems, including sound and air pollution.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 60  
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