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Author Tsao, J.Y.; Saunders, H.D.; Creighton, J.R.; Coltrin, M.E.; Simmons, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics Abbreviated Journal J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.  
  Volume 43 Issue 35 Pages 354001  
  Keywords artificial light; solid state; light emitting diode; LED; economics  
  Abstract Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb–Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3727 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 127  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Collison, F.M.; Poe, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Astronomical Tourism”: The Astronomy and Dark Sky Program at Bryce Canyon National Park Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Tourism Management Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Tourism Management Perspectives  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Astronomy-related tourism; National parks; Night sky darkness; astrotourism; dark skies  
  Abstract Astronomical tourism represents a less-studied segment of sustainable tourism, where a dark night sky is the underlying resource. This article evaluates an astronomical tourism program, in this case at a national park with dark skies for observing. Bryce Canyon National Park (BCNP) in the southwestern United States has a well-developed astronomy program to serve visitors. The program consists of solar viewing during the day, multimedia evening programs, and night-time star gazing with telescopes. Depending on the specific measure used, it appears that up to 10% of park visitors may be involved with the formal Astronomy and Dark Sky Program and/or more informal astronomy activities. BCNP appears well positioned to take advantage of the dark sky attributes of the park and to educate visitors about the importance of maintaining and/or increasing the darkness of night skies. Potential future developments in the program may serve to further increase the number of visitors to BCNP.  
  Address School of Travel Industry Management, 1901 Ruby Lane, Liberty, MO 64068; collison(at)hawaii.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 128  
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Author Kavcic, P.; Rojc, B.; Dolenc-Groselj, L.; Claustrat, B.; Fujs, K.; Poljak, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of sleep deprivation and nighttime light exposure on clock gene expression in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Croatian Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Croat Med J  
  Volume 52 Issue 5 Pages 594-603  
  Keywords genomics; epigenetics; hPer2; hBmal1; clock genes; gene expression; biology; human health  
  Abstract Aim

To examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation under light conditions on the expression of two key clock genes, hPer2 and hBmal1, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on plasma melatonin and cortisol levels.

Methods

Blood samples were drawn from 6 healthy individuals at 4-hour intervals for three consecutive nights, including a night of total sleep deprivation (second night). The study was conducted in April-June 2006 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana.

Results

We found a significant diurnal variation in hPer2 and hBmal1 expression levels under baseline (P < 0.001, F = 19.7, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 17.6, df = 30 for hBmal1) and sleep-deprived conditions (P < 0.001, F = 9.2, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 13.2, df = 30 for hBmal1). Statistical analysis with the single cosinor method revealed circadian variation of hPer2 under baseline and of hBmal1 under baseline and sleep-deprived conditions. The peak expression of hPer2 was at 13:55 ± 1:15 hours under baseline conditions and of hBmal1 at 16:08 ± 1:18 hours under baseline and at 17:13 ± 1:35 hours under sleep-deprived conditions. Individual cosinor analysis of hPer2 revealed a loss of circadian rhythm in 3 participants and a phase shift in 2 participants under sleep-deprived conditions. The plasma melatonin and cortisol rhythms confirmed a conventional alignment of the central circadian pacemaker to the habitual sleep/wake schedule.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that 40-hour acute sleep deprivation under light conditions may affect the expression of hPer2 in PBMCs.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0353-9504 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 135  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Reiter, R.; Tan, D.; SanchezBarcelo, E.; Mediavilla, M.; Gitto, E.; Korkmaz, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian mechanisms in the regulation of melatonin synthesis: disruption with light at night and the pathophysiological consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Exp Integr Med  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 13  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract In the past two decades, the results of a number of epidemiological studies have uncovered an association between excessive light exposure at night and the prevalence of cancer. Whereas the evidence supporting this link is strongest between nighttime light and female breast and male prostate cancer, the frequency of other tumor types may also be elevated. Individuals who have the highest reported increase in cancer are chronic night shift workers and flight attendants who routinely fly across numerous time zones.

There are at least two obvious physiological consequences of nighttime light exposure, i.e., a reduction in circulating melatonin levels and disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption). Both these perturbations in experimental animals aggravate tumor growth. Melatonin has a long investigative history in terms of its ability to stymie the growth of many tumor types. Likewise, in the last decade chronodisruption has been unequivocally linked to a variety of abnormal metabolic conditions including excessive tumor growth.

This brief review summarizes the processes by which light after darkness onset impedes melatonin production and disturbs circadian rhythms. The survey also reviews the evidence associating the ostensible danger of excessive nighttime light pollution to cancer risk. If an elevated tumor frequency is definitively proven to be a consequence of light at night and/or chronodisruption, it seems likely that cancer will not be the exclusive pathophysiological change associated with the rampant light pollution characteristic of modern societies.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1309-4572 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 137  
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Author Kretschmer, V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Griefahn, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 316-333  
  Keywords shift work; light at night; light exposure; memory; concentration; human health  
  Abstract Night shift workers show a decline in performance during working time. Due to demographic change, the labour market requires more elderly people to work at night. Ageing is accompanied by a decrease in cognitive abilities, in the capabilities of the visual system and in coping with night work from the age of 40 onwards. This investigation focuses on the effects of bright light exposure on the working memory, concentration and sustained attention of elderly persons during three consecutive night shifts. After statistical control for neuroticism and intelligence as covariates, the results demonstrate that exposure to bright light at night reduces error rates for a working memory task and a concentration performance task but performance on a sustained attention task is completely unaffected.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 147  
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