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Author Townsend, A.C.; Bruce, D.A.
Title The use of night-time lights satellite imagery as a measure of Australia's regional electricity consumption and population distribution Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 31 Issue 16 Pages 4459-4480
Keywords DMSP-OLS; light at night; remote sensing; satellite; skyglow
Abstract Satellite imagery of night-time lights provided by the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), using the Operational Linescan System (OLS), has been used to estimate the spatial distribution of electricity consumption throughout Australia. For the period 1997 to 2002, there was very high correlation between state electricity consumption and night-time lights with an R 2 value of 0.9346 at the state and territory spatial resolution. To increase the accuracy at which electricity consumption can be estimated at greater spatial resolution, an Overglow Removal Model (ORM) was developed to overcome the overglow effect caused by the dispersion of light into surrounding areas. The ORM makes use of the relationship between light source strength and the overglow/dispersion distance from the light source. As electricity consumption statistics at a greater spatial resolution than the state or territory level are not publically available in Australia, population statistics at the statistical local area (SLA) were used to demonstrate the increased accuracy of the ORM at returning the overglow light to its source, and, in turn, the accuracy of measuring electricity consumption. The ORM enabled an estimation of the electricity consumption of SLAs, greater than 10 km2, with an R 2 value of 0.8732, which is a 25.4% increase in accuracy over untreated data before applying the ORM. The increase in accuracy of the location of the origin of night-time lights can enable better georeferencing of satellite imagery of night-time lights and greater accuracy in locating population centres and centres of economic development, and assist with electricity infrastructure planning in regions of the world where statistics are not readily available. The result of the ORM is a map of Australian electricity consumption, and an estimation of the regional electricity consumption for all SLAs greater than 10 km2 in size is included.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 230
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K.E.; Tuttle, B.T.; Ghosh, T.; Pack, D.W.; Erwin, E.H.; Zhizhin, M.
Title A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 595-622
Keywords
Abstract We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM). Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satell
Address gas flaring; carbon emissions; nighttime lights; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; light at night; satellite
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ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 231
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Author Sutton, P.C.
Title A scale-adjusted measure of “Urban sprawl” using nighttime satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 86 Issue 3 Pages 353-369
Keywords Urban sprawl; Sprawl Line; Nighttime satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; llight at night
Abstract “Urban Sprawl” is a growing concern of citizens, environmental organizations, and governments. Negative impacts often attributed to urban sprawl are traffic congestion, loss of open space, and increased pollutant runoff into natural waterways. Definitions of “Urban Sprawl” range from local patterns of land use and development to aggregate measures of per capita land consumption for given contiguous urban areas (UA). This research creates a measure of per capita land use consumption as an aggregate index for the spatially contiguous urban areas of the conterminous United States with population of 50,000 or greater. Nighttime satellite imagery obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is used as a proxy measure of urban extent. The corresponding population of these urban areas is derived from a grid of the block group level data from the 1990 U.S. Census. These numbers are used to develop a regression equation between Ln(Urban Area) and Ln(Urban Population). The ‘scale-adjustment’ mentioned in the title characterizes the “Urban Sprawl” of each of the urban areas by how far above or below they are on the “Sprawl Line” determined by this regression. This “Sprawl Line” allows for a more fair comparison of “Urban Sprawl” between larger and smaller metropolitan areas because a simple measure of per capita land consumption or population density does not account for the natural increase in aggregate population density that occurs as cities grow in population. Cities that have more “Urban Sprawl” by this measure tended to be inland and Midwestern cities such as Minneapolis–St. Paul, Atlanta, Dallas–Ft. Worth, St. Louis, and Kansas City. Surprisingly, west coast cities including Los Angeles had some of the lowest levels of “Urban Sprawl” by this measure. There were many low light levels seen in the nighttime imagery around these major urban areas that were not included in either of the two definitions of urban extent used in this study. These areas may represent a growing commuter-shed of urban workers who do not live in the urban core but nonetheless contribute to many of the impacts typically attributed to “Urban Sprawl”. “Urban Sprawl” is difficult to define precisely partly because public perception of sprawl is likely derived from local land use planning decisions, spatio-demographic change in growing urban areas, and changing values and social mores resulting from differential rates of international migration to the urban areas of the United States. Nonetheless, the aggregate measures derived here are somewhat different than similar previously used measures in that they are ‘scale-adjusted’; also, the spatial patterns of “Urban Sprawl” shown here shed some insight and raise interesting questions about how the dynamics of “Urban Sprawl” are changing.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 233
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Author Sutton, P.; Roberts, D.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.
Title Census from Heaven: An estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 22 Issue 16 Pages 3061-3076
Keywords light at night; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite
Abstract Night-time satellite imagery provided by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. A global night-time image product was registered to a dataset of 2000 known city locations with known populations. A relationship between areal extent and city population discovered by Tobler and Nordbeck is identified on a nation by nation basis to estimate the population of the 22 920 urban clusters that exist in the night-time satellite image. The relationship between city population and city areal extent was derived from 1597 city point locations with known population that landed in a 'lit' area of the image. Due to conurbation, these 1597 cities resulted in only 1383 points of analysis for performing regression. When several cities fell into one 'lit' area their populations were summed. The results of this analysis allow for an estimate of the urban population of every nation of the world. By using the known percent of population in urban areas for every nation a total national population was also estimated. The sum of these estimates is a total estimate of the global human population, which in this case was 6.3 billion. This is fairly close to the generally accepted contemporaneous (1997) estimate of the global population which stood at approximately 5.9 billion.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 234
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hänel, A.; Hölker, F.
Title Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Energy & Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Environ. Sci.
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 1806
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; luminous efficiency; lighting standards; public policy; illuminance; street lighting
Abstract Improvements in the luminous efficiency of outdoor lamps might not result in energy savings or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The reason for this is a rebound effect: when light becomes cheaper, many users will increase illumination, and some previously unlit areas may become lit. We present three policy recommendations that work together to guarantee major energy reductions in street lighting systems. First, taking advantage of new technologies to use light only when and where it is needed. Second, defining maximum permitted illuminances for roadway lighting. Third, defining street lighting system efficiency in terms of kilowatt hours per kilometer per year. Adoption of these policies would not only save energy, but would greatly reduce the amount of light pollution produced by cities. The goal of lighting policy should be to provide the light needed for any given task while minimizing both the energy use and negative environmental side effects of the light.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1754-5692 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 244
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