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Author Sutton, P.; Roberts, D.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.
Title Census from Heaven: An estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 22 Issue 16 Pages 3061-3076
Keywords light at night; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite
Abstract Night-time satellite imagery provided by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. A global night-time image product was registered to a dataset of 2000 known city locations with known populations. A relationship between areal extent and city population discovered by Tobler and Nordbeck is identified on a nation by nation basis to estimate the population of the 22 920 urban clusters that exist in the night-time satellite image. The relationship between city population and city areal extent was derived from 1597 city point locations with known population that landed in a 'lit' area of the image. Due to conurbation, these 1597 cities resulted in only 1383 points of analysis for performing regression. When several cities fell into one 'lit' area their populations were summed. The results of this analysis allow for an estimate of the urban population of every nation of the world. By using the known percent of population in urban areas for every nation a total national population was also estimated. The sum of these estimates is a total estimate of the global human population, which in this case was 6.3 billion. This is fairly close to the generally accepted contemporaneous (1997) estimate of the global population which stood at approximately 5.9 billion.
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ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 234
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hänel, A.; Hölker, F.
Title Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Energy & Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Environ. Sci.
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 1806
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; luminous efficiency; lighting standards; public policy; illuminance; street lighting
Abstract Improvements in the luminous efficiency of outdoor lamps might not result in energy savings or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The reason for this is a rebound effect: when light becomes cheaper, many users will increase illumination, and some previously unlit areas may become lit. We present three policy recommendations that work together to guarantee major energy reductions in street lighting systems. First, taking advantage of new technologies to use light only when and where it is needed. Second, defining maximum permitted illuminances for roadway lighting. Third, defining street lighting system efficiency in terms of kilowatt hours per kilometer per year. Adoption of these policies would not only save energy, but would greatly reduce the amount of light pollution produced by cities. The goal of lighting policy should be to provide the light needed for any given task while minimizing both the energy use and negative environmental side effects of the light.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany
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ISSN 1754-5692 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 244
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Author Daukantas, P.
Title Light Pollution: The Problem and the Possible Solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Optics and Photonics News Abbreviated Journal Optics & Photonics News
Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 30
Keywords light pollution; public policy
Abstract Over the past quarter-century, scientists have become increasingly aware of the problems that light pollution causes for astronomers, migrating birds and human health and safety. Finding effective means to reduce the effects will take the combined efforts of research scientists, lighting engineers, architects, city planners, businesspeople and homeowners.
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ISSN 1047-6938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 245
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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R.; Pick, K.; Selders, J.
Title From The Ground Up I: Light Pollution Sources in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac
Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 185-203
Keywords light pollution; Flagstaff; Arizona; measurements; lighting policy; public policy
Abstract We develop an estimate of the complete outdoor lighting of Flagstaff Arizona, as well as lighting-use densities (lumens per acre) for a number of different land uses. We find a total outdoor light output of 173 million lumens (Mlm) including sports lighting, and 139 Mlm without sports lighting, with an uncertainty of about 7%. The average fraction escaping directly upward from light fixtures is estimated to be 8.3%. After correcting approximately for near-ground blocking described in the accompanying paper by Luginbuhl et al., total uplight is estimated at 17.9 Mlm or 12.2 Mlm with and without sports lighting, respectively. Of these 17.9 Mlm, 33% arise from sports lighting, when it is on; when sports lighting is off, commercial and industrial lighting account for 62% with the remainder dominated by residential (14%) and roadway lighting (12%). We show that the 1989 Flagstaff lighting code that limited total outdoor lighting on new construction has reduced the growth rate of lighting, resulting in a 17% growth in light escaping into the sky from 1989 to 2003, compared to a 43% increase expected if the 1989 code had not been enacted. If all legally nonconforming lighting installed before 1989 were to be brought into compliance with the code, we would expect sky glow in Flagstaff to actually decrease by 36% compared to that in 2003; if all lighting, including residential, could be converted to fully shielded fixtures, sky glow would decrease to about half the current value. The implications for the most effective ways to address sky glow through lighting codes are discussed.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 246
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Rinne, J.
Title Voices for the darkness: online survey on public perceptions on light pollution as an environmental problem Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences
Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 127-139
Keywords environmental management; light pollution; public perceptions; survey; public policy
Abstract Light pollution is increasingly affecting ecosystems and human health. We present results from an online survey aimed to chart what aspects of lighting are considered harmful and how light pollution is perceived by the public. We focus on affluent societies by using Finland as an example of a northern industrialised country. The survey generated 2053 responses, particularly from well-educated urban persons living in residential areas and interested in astronomy or environmental issues. The results show that the lighting of residential areas and lighting serving traffic are considered the most common sources of light pollution while commercial lighting is perceived as the most annoying form of light use. Respondents commonly considered light pollution as a disturbance for outdoor recreation and relaxation. The results suggest that the ecological and health effects of light pollution emphasised by the research are poorly known by the people emphasising the aesthetic aspects. The results indicate relatively wide but passive acceptance for policy measures aimed at reducing light pollution.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1943-815X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 248
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