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Author Marchant, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating area-wide crime-reduction measures Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance  
  Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 62-65  
  Keywords lighting; crime; safety  
  Abstract When we look around an imperfect world, we feel an understandable impulse to improve matters. We may therefore decide to intervene by prescribing medical treatment or by introducing crime reduction measures. But how do we know that what we do is likely to work? In medicine the standard answer is to do a trial; not surprisingly the same is true in crime reduction. But, says Paul Marchant, the lessons learned from medical trials have not been implemented in the latter field.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1740-9705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 253  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Demonstration That the Claim That Brighter Lighting Reduces Crime Is Unfounded Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication British Journal of Criminology Abbreviated Journal British Journal of Criminology  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 441-447  
  Keywords lighting; crime; street lighting  
  Abstract The major systematic review on street lighting and crime, Home Office Research Study 251, suggests that claims for the effectiveness of lighting against crime are justified. The review at first sight appears to be an appropriate statistical synthesis of all studies on street lighting and crime across the world. However on close examination, the statistical claims and methods are unfounded. In three cases examined there is a clear conflict between the evidence and the reviewers' interpretation of this. One of the principal problems is easily seen. The time-series of the original data from the Bristol study shows no good evidence for the crime reduction benefit of lighting. However the review gives the result for the same data as being extremely statistically significant. It is suggested that such a difference between the newly lit and the control areas occurring purely by chance is less than one in a billion, but this is manifestly wrong. Two other component studies, Birmingham and Dudley, are examined.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-0955 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 254  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using two light-pollution models to investigate artificial sky radiances at Canary Islands observatories: Light-pollution models and artificial sky radiances Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 422 Issue 1 Pages 819-830  
  Keywords Keywords: radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing  
  Abstract Astronomical observations are increasingly limited by light pollution, which is a product of the over-illumination of the night sky. To predict both the angular distribution of scattered light and the ground-reaching radiative fluxes, a set of models has been introduced in recent decades. Two distinct numerical tools, MSNsRAu and ILLUMINA, are compared in this paper, with the aim of identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The numerical experiment comprises the simulation of spectral radiances in the region of the Canary Islands. In particular, the light fields near the Roque de los Muchachos and Teide observatories are computed under various turbidity conditions. It is shown that ILLUMINA has enhanced accuracy at low elevation angles. However, ILLUMINA is time-consuming because of the two scattering orders incorporated into the calculation scheme. Under low-turbidity conditions and for zenith angles smaller than 70° the two models agree well, and thus can be successfully applied to typical cloudless situations at the majority of observatories. MSNsRAu is well optimized for large-scale simulations. In particular, the grid size is adapted dynamically depending on the distance between a light source and a hypothetical observer. This enables rapid numerical modelling for large territories. MSNsRAu is also well suited for the mass modelling of night-sky radiances after ground-based light sources are hypothetically changed. This enables an optimum design of public lighting systems and a time-efficient evaluation of the optical effects related to different lamp spectra or different lamp distributions. ILLUMINA provides two diagnostic geographical maps to help local authorities concerned about light-pollution control. The first map allows the identification of the relative contribution of each ground element to the observed sky radiance at a given viewing angle, while the second map gives the sensitivity, basically saying how each ground element contributes per lumen installed.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 256  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Biggs, J.D.; Fouché, T.; Bilki, F.; Zadnik, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measuring and mapping the night sky brightness of Perth, Western Australia: Night sky brightness of Perth Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 421 Issue 2 Pages 1450-1464  
  Keywords scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; techniques: photometric  
  Abstract In order to study the light pollution produced in the city of Perth, Western Australia, we have used a hand-held sky brightness meter to measure the night sky brightness across the city. The data acquired facilitated the creation of a contour map of night sky brightness across the 2400 km2 area of the city – the first such map to be produced for a city. Importantly, this map was created using a methodology borrowed from the field of geophysics – the well proven and rigorous techniques of geostatistical analysis and modelling.

A major finding of this study is the effect of land use on night sky brightness. By overlaying the night sky brightness map on to a suitably processed Landsat satellite image of Perth we found that locations near commercial and/or light industrial areas have a brighter night sky, whereas locations used for agriculture or having high vegetation coverage have a fainter night sky than surrounding areas. Urban areas have intermediate amounts of vegetation and are intermediate in brightness compared with the above-mentioned land uses. Regions with a higher density of major highways also appear to contribute to increased night sky brightness.

When corrected for the effects of direct illumination from high buildings, we found that the night sky brightness in the central business district (CBD) is very close to that expected for a city of Perth’s population from modelling work and observations obtained in earlier studies. Given that our night sky brightness measurements in Perth over 2009 and 2010 are commensurate with that measured in Canadian cities over 30 years earlier implies that the various lighting systems employed in Perth (and probably most other cities) have not been optimised to minimize light pollution over that time.

We also found that night sky brightness diminished with distance with an exponent of approximately −0.25 ± 0.02 from 3.5 to 10 km from the Perth CBD, a region characterized by urban and commercial land use. For distances from 10 out to about 40 km from the CBD the radial variation of night sky brightness steepens to have an exponent value of approximately −1.8 ± 0.2. This steepening is associated with land use because vegetation cover increases with further distance from the CBD.
 
  Address Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Bentley 6102, WA, Australia  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 257  
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