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Author Gaston, K.J.; Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Hopkins, J.
Title Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 1256-1266
Keywords
Abstract 1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title (down)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23335816; PMCID:PMC3546378 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 15
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Wagner, J.M.; Kuechly, H.U.; Walker, C.E.; Elvidge, C.D.; Falchi, F.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 3 Issue Pages 1835
Keywords
Abstract The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.
Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title (down)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23677222; PMCID:PMC3655480 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 13
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Tapio, P.; Assmuth, T.
Title Unawareness in environmental protection: The case of light pollution from traffic Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Land Use Policy Abbreviated Journal Land Use Policy
Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 598-604
Keywords Public Safety; public policy; traffic safety
Abstract New information is often emphasized as a basis of effective and scientifically sound environmental policy and management. However, outdated or incorrect information is not automatically nor instantly replaced by new insights. This article focuses on the various ways environmental information can be unintentionally left with insufficient attention or purposefully neglected. Energy-related emissions caused by road traffic in Finland are used as an illustrative example and light pollution caused by artificial lighting is identified as an emerging issue that has gained especially low recognition in the environmental agenda. Four different reasons for this lack of recognition are discussed: recognized unawareness, false awareness, deliberate unawareness and concealed awareness. Paying attention to light pollution is important because of various ecological, socio-cultural and economic effects but also because implementing measures aimed for reducing light pollution create possibilities for alleviating other social and environmental problems in transport and land use policies.
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Language Summary Language Original Title (down)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0264-8377 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 23
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Richardson, J.S.; Sadler, J.P.; Wolter, C.; Tockner, K.
Title The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere
Volume 2 Issue 11 Pages art122
Keywords aquatic invertebrates; artificial illumination; ecosystems; fish; multiple stressors; riparian; streams; urbanization
Abstract Artificial light at night is gaining attention for its potential to alter ecosystems. Although terrestrial ecologists have observed that artificial light at night may disrupt migrations, feeding, and other important ecological functions, we know comparatively little about the role artificial light might play in disrupting freshwater and riparian ecosystems. We identify and discuss four future research domains that artificial light may influence in freshwater and associated terrestrial ecosystems, with an emphasis on running waters: (1) dispersal, (2) population genetics and evolution, (3) ecosystem functioning, and (4) potential interactions with other stressors. We suggest that future experimental and modeling studies should focus on the effects of different spectral emissions by different light sources on freshwater organisms, the spatial and temporal scale over which artificial light acts, and the magnitude of change in light at night across the landscape relative to the distribution of running and standing waters. Improved knowledge about the effects of artificial light on freshwater ecosystems will inform policy decisions about changes to artificial light spectral emissions and distributions.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00241.1
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title (down)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 24
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Author Rodrigues, P.; Aubrecht, C.; Gil, A.; Longcore, T.; Elvidge, C.
Title Remote sensing to map influence of light pollution on Cory's shearwater in São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal Eur J Wildl Res
Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 147-155
Keywords birds; Calonectris diomedea; Cory's shearwater; Azores; light at night; light pollution
Abstract Global economic and population growth increase the extent and intensity of artificial night lighting. From an ecological perspective, this is light pollution, which causes changes in reproductive physiology, migration and foraging of many species and ultimately leads to loss of biodiversity. Some seabirds are intimately linked with the light features of their environments because they are nocturnally active. We report light-induced groundings of Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) during a 2-year study (2008 and 2009) in São Miguel Island, in the Azores archipelago, and investigate the spatial correlation of locations of grounded birds with an annual composite of remotely sensed stable lights. Results indicate that 16.7% of fledglings are attracted to lights. The exposure of shearwater colonies in the study area to artificial night lighting is low overall. Four colonies account for 87% of the grounded birds. The distance each bird was found from the closest colony was best explained by the ratio of the satellite-measured light levels at the grounding spot to the light levels at the assigned colony of origin. These results demonstrate that satellite-observed nighttime lights are sufficient to assess risk to marine birds at the scale of oceanic islands and indicate their utility for monitoring the effectiveness of programs to manage lighting to reduce risk for these species and conducting global assessments of species vulnerability. To minimize the impact on Cory’s shearwater and other marine birds, we recommend measures such as reduction and control of lighting intensity near colony locations, while continuing and re-enforcing rescue campaigns.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title (down)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1612-4642 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 25
Permanent link to this record