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Author Fonken, L.K.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dark nights reverse metabolic disruption caused by dim light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Abbreviated Journal Obesity (Silver Spring)
Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 1159-1164
Keywords Animals; Body Mass Index; Energy Intake; Gene Expression; Glucose Tolerance Test; *Light; Male; Mice; Obesity/*epidemiology/etiology; *Photoperiod; Weight Gain
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders coincides with increasing exposure to light at night. Previous studies report that mice exposed to dim light at night (dLAN) develop symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether mice returned to dark nights after dLAN exposure recover metabolic function. DESIGN AND METHODS: Male Swiss-Webster mice were assigned to either: standard light-dark (LD) conditions for 8 weeks (LD/LD), dLAN for 8 weeks (dLAN/dLAN), LD for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of dLAN (LD/dLAN), and dLAN for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of LD (dLAN/LD). RESULTS: After 4 weeks in their respective lighting conditions both groups initially placed in dLAN increased body mass gain compared to LD mice. Half of the dLAN mice (dLAN/LD) were then transferred to LD and vice versa (LD/dLAN). Following the transfer dLAN/dLAN and LD/dLAN mice gained more weight than LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice. At the conclusion of the study dLAN/LD mice did not differ from LD/LD mice with respect to weight gain and had lower fat pad mass compared to dLAN/dLAN mice. Compared to all other groups dLAN/dLAN mice decreased glucose tolerance as indicated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test at week 7, indicating that dLAN/LD mice recovered glucose metabolism. dLAN/dLAN mice also increased MAC1 mRNA expression in peripheral fat as compared to both LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice, suggesting peripheral inflammation is induced by dLAN, but not sustained after return to LD. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that re-exposure to dark nights ameliorates metabolic disruption caused by dLAN exposure.
Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1930-7381 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23666854 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 167
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Author Obayashi, K.; Saeki, K.; Iwamoto, J.; Okamoto, N.; Tomioka, K.; Nezu, S.; Ikada, Y.; Kurumatani, N.
Title Exposure to light at night, nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion, and obesity/dyslipidemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Abbreviated Journal J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Volume 98 Issue 1 Pages 337-344
Keywords *Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; *Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dyslipidemias/complications/metabolism/*urine; Female; Humans; Japan; *Light; Male; Melatonin/secretion/*urine; Obesity/complications/metabolism/*urine; Photoperiod
Abstract CONTEXT: Obesity and exposure to light at night (LAN) have increased globally. Although LAN suppresses melatonin secretion and disturbs body mass regulation in experimental settings, its associations with melatonin secretion, obesity, and other metabolic consequences in uncontrolled home settings remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association of exposure to LAN in an uncontrolled home setting with melatonin secretion, obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 528 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.8 yr). MEASURES: The intensity of LAN in the bedroom was measured at 1-min intervals during two consecutive nights, along with overnight urinary melatonin excretion and metabolic parameters. RESULTS: Compared with the Dim group (average <3 lux; n = 383), the LAN group (average >/=3 lux; n = 145) showed significantly higher body weight (adjusted mean, 58.8 vs. 56.6 kg; P = 0.01), body mass index (23.3 vs. 22.7 kg/m(2); P = 0.04), waist circumference (84.9 vs. 82.8 cm; P = 0.01), triglyceride levels (119.7 vs. 99.5 mg/dl; P < 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (128.6 vs. 122.2 mg/dl; P = 0.04), and showed significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (57.4 vs. 61.3 mg/dl; P = 0.02). These associations were independent of numerous potential confounders, including urinary melatonin excretion. Furthermore, LAN exposure is associated with higher odds ratios (ORs) for obesity (body mass index: OR, 1.89; P = 0.02; abdominal: OR, 1.62; P = 0.04) and dyslipidemia (OR, 1.72; P = 0.02) independent of demographic and socioeconomic parameters. In contrast, urinary melatonin excretion and glucose parameters did not show significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to LAN in an uncontrolled home setting is associated with impaired obese and lipid parameters independent of nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion in elderly individuals. Moreover, LAN exposure is associated with higher ORs for obesity and dyslipidemia independent of demographic and socioeconomic parameters.
Address Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara, 634-8521, Japan. obayashi@naramed-u.ac.jp
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-972X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23118419 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 168
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Workman, J.L.; Walton, J.C.; Weil, Z.M.; Morris, J.S.; Haim, A.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 107 Issue 43 Pages 18664-18669
Keywords Animals; Body Mass Index; *Circadian Rhythm; Disease Models, Animal; Eating/*physiology/psychology/*radiation effects; Energy Intake; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology/radiation effects; Glucose Tolerance Test; Humans; Male; Metabolic Syndrome X/etiology; Mice; Motor Activity; Obesity/*etiology/pathology/physiopathology/psychology; *Photoperiod
Abstract The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20937863; PMCID:PMC2972983 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 169
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Author Owsley, C.
Title Impact of Cataract Surgery on Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement by Older Adults Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 288 Issue 7 Pages 841
Keywords cataracts
Abstract We report the results of the Impact of Cataracts on Mobility (ICOM) project that was designed to address the question, for those older drivers who have cataract, what is the impact of cataract surgery on crash rate in the 4 years following surgery compared with those who have cataract who do not elect surgery? Strengths of this study design are the use of a comparison group of patients with cataract who do not undergo surgery followed prospectively over the same time period and the statistical adjustment for potential differences in the surgery and no surgery groups at baseline that could serve as confounders for the hypothesized effect. Using a randomized design would have been unethical since cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation is an accepted and proven standard of care.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0098-7484 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 170
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Chisholm, R.
Title Mapping artificial lightscapes for ecological studies Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Methods in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Methods Ecol Evol
Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 534-540
Keywords light pollution; urban ecology; landscape ecology; diurnal; nocturnal; night; light
Abstract Artificial illumination of the night is increasing globally. There is growing evidence of a range of ecological impacts of artificial light and awareness of light pollution as a significant environmental issue. In urban and suburban areas, complex spatial patterns of light sources, structures and vegetation create a highly heterogeneous night-time light environment for plants and animals.

We developed a method for modelling the night-time light environment at a high spatial resolution in a small urban area for ecological studies. We used the position and height of street lights, and digital terrain and surface models, to predict the direct light intensity at different wavelengths at different heights above the ground surface.

Validation against field measurements of night-time light showed that modelled light intensities in the visible and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum were accurate.

We show how this model can be used to map biologically relevant lightscapes across an urban landscape. We also illustrate the utility of the model using night-time light maps as resistance surfaces in the software package circuitscape to predict potential movement of model nocturnal species between habitat patches and to identify key corridors and barriers to movement and dispersal.

Understanding the ecological effects of artificial light requires knowledge of the light environment experienced by organisms throughout the diurnal and annual cycles, during periods of activity and rest and during different life stages. Our approach to high-resolution mapping of artificial lightscapes can be adapted to the sensitivity to light of different species and to other urban, suburban, rural and industrial landscapes.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2041210X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 171
Permanent link to this record