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Author Miller, S.D.; Mills, S.P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Lindsey, D.T.; Lee, T.F.; Hawkins, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Suomi satellite brings to light a unique frontier of nighttime environmental sensing capabilities Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 109 Issue 39 Pages 15706-15711  
  Keywords Suomi NPP; satellite; remote sensing; light at night  
  Abstract Most environmental satellite radiometers use solar reflectance information when it is available during the day but must resort at night to emission signals from infrared bands, which offer poor sensitivity to low-level clouds and surface features. A few sensors can take advantage of moonlight, but the inconsistent availability of the lunar source limits measurement utility. Here we show that the Day/Night Band (DNB) low-light visible sensor on the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite has the unique ability to image cloud and surface features by way of reflected airglow, starlight, and zodiacal light illumination. Examples collected during new moon reveal not only meteorological and surface features, but also the direct emission of airglow structures in the mesosphere, including expansive regions of diffuse glow and wave patterns forced by tropospheric convection. The ability to leverage diffuse illumination sources for nocturnal environmental sensing applications extends the advantages of visible-light information to moonless nights.  
  Address Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. steven.miller@colostate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22984179; PMCID:PMC3465370 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 220  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Propastin, P.; Kappas, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing Satellite-Observed Nighttime Lights for Monitoring Socioeconomic Parameters in the Republic of Kazakhstan Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication GIScience & Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal GIScience & Remote Sensing  
  Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 538-557  
  Keywords DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; light at night; light pollution; satellite; Kazakhstan; former Soviet republics  
  Abstract This paper describes an initial assessment of human-induced nighttime lights acquired by the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) with respect to its applicability in monitoring settlement patterns, population, electricity consumption, gross domestic product (GDP), and carbon dioxide emissions at different spatial levels in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The results revealed the suitability of DMSP-OLS data to detect both urban expansion and contraction over last two decades caused by the new economic situation following the independence of Kazakhstan in 1991. Relationships between DMSP-OLS urban lit area and the socioeconomic parameters were quantified. The DMSP-OLS data proved to be an effective tool in the monitoring of both the spatial and temporal variability of the examined socioeconomic parameters.  
  Address Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1548-1603 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 221  
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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhao, N.; Ghosh, T.; Samson, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping spatio-temporal changes of Chinese electric power consumption using night-time imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 33 Issue 20 Pages 6304-6320  
  Keywords DMSP-OLS; LandScan; remote sensing; China; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract China's rapid economic development in the last 20 years has resulted in increased demand for electricity and ensuing shortages in electric power supply. It is necessary to derive accurate and timely information regarding changing spatio-temporal patterns and trends of electric power consumption to inform future electricity allocation. Night-time annual image composites for 1995–2005 were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System and were inter-calibrated. The inter-calibrated night-time image composites were used in conjunction with the LandScan 2008 population data to estimate the amounts of electric power consumption in 1995, 2000 and 2005 for China at the province level. The estimated amounts of electric power consumption were then disaggregated to the pixel level. A pixel-based map was produced to show the spatio-temporal changes of electric power consumption from 1995 to 2005, in which 11 regional agglomerations with large increases of electric power consumption had emerged. During the process of producing this spatio-temporal change map, some errors were generated because of the use of single-year LandScan population data, imperfect reference regions for inter-calibration and a single threshold value for delimiting urban areas. However, we believe these errors are limited and acceptable, so we present this method of estimation and disaggregation to show the increases in electric consumption.  
  Address Department of Geography , Texas State University-San Marcos , San Marcos , TX , 78666 , USA  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 223  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhao, N.; Samson, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products using nighttime imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 18 Issue Pages 243-250  
  Keywords Virtual water; Nighttime imagery; Lit area; Urban population; International trade product; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract Freshwater that is consumed in the process of producing a commodity is called virtual water – it represents all water use contained in that commodity. In social systems, water resources can flow when commodities are traded from one region to another. Quantitative monitoring and assessing virtual water flow related to international trade products is an important issue to comprehensively understand the balance of global water resources. In this study we tested the potential of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime images in conjunction with the LandScan population dataset for estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products. Lit area (areal extent of night lights) and urban population were selected as proxies to estimate export virtual water (EVW), import virtual water (IVW), and traded virtual water (TVW) (summed EVW and IVW), respectively, on the national level. The results showed that IVW can be more accurately estimated than EVW regardless of lit area or urban population. Lit area is normally more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developed countries than those of developing countries, but urban population is more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developing countries than those of developed countries. Urban population is a better proxy than total population for estimations of virtual water. This study makes a negative finding in that there are relatively large underestimations for developed countries. Another negative finding is that neither lit area nor urban population can be used to estimate net import virtual water (NIVW).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 224  
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