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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution at Mount Wilson and at Palomar in 1931-32 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 122 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract I present a short summary of an unpublished letter by Joel Stebbins on light pollution at Mount Wilson Observatory and on Palmar Mountain in 1931-32. I analyzed his results and show that the light emission per capita in 1932 – o was about 3*1*10^17 photons s^-1 in the blue region, equivalent to about 220 lumens per head in the visual region. These my be compared with about 1*4*10^18 photons s^-1 in the blue region and about 1000 lumens per head in the visual region for California cities in 1970.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2622  
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Author Treanor, P. J. url  openurl
  Title A simple propagation law for artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 117-120  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The problem of locating new large astronomical observatories in sites which have a suitably dark night sky (artificial excess of the order of omi) is becoming increasingly difficult in Europe and the United States, on account of extensive urban development, the high luminous efficiency of modern discharge lighting, and the scattering of light in an atmosphere contaminated by aerosols. To investigate the artificial illumination of the sky over large regions on the basis of necessarily limited observations, one needs an expression for the zenith brightness produced by towns of known site and distance.

The exact derivation of such a law is exceedingly complex, involving the computation of the radiation transfer in an atmosphere with absorption, multiple scattering, and complicated physical and geometrical parameters. Notwithstanding these difficulties, it is possible to obtain a useful physical insight into the general form of this law by considering a very simplified model, consisting of a homogeneous atmosphere, in which vertical heights are small in relation to the horizontal distances between town and observatory, and which the scattering is limited to a cone of small angle whose axis lies in the direction of the incident beam. The limited scale height and optical thickness of the real atmosphere, and the forward-scattering characteristics of aerosols lend some plausibility to these simplifications.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2633  
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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Improved scattering formula for calculations of artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication (down) The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 104 Issue Pages 196-197  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract In recent years there has been increased interest in measuring the artificial illumination produced in the night sky cities of various sizes at a range of distances from the observer. Examples of such measurements include the work of Treanor on three Italian cities, that of Walker on the cities of various sized in California, and a study by Berry of light pollution in Southern Ontario. There seem to have been few attempts to provide theoretical interpretations of these measurements other than that contained in the paper by Treanor. He developed a simple empirical formula (his equation (6)) for the zenith brigthness due to a distant city as a function of the distance of the observer from the city. Treanor's formula was used by Berry, with a modification which we mention later.

Treanor based his formula on a very ingenious method of estimating the contribution to the zenith brightness of aerosol scattering between the city, treated as a point source, and an element of the atmosphere in the direction of the observer's zenith. Readers are referred to Treanor's paper for details of his derivation. We give here a simple extension of his work which leads to a scattering formula valid under less restrictive assumptions.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2638  
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Author Edison, T.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Success of the Electric Light Type Magazine Article
  Year 1880 Publication (down) The North American Review Abbreviated Journal N. American Rev.  
  Volume 131 Issue 287 Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Society; history; artificial light; Lighting  
  Abstract (none)  
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  Publisher University of Northern Iowa Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1272  
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Author Edison, T.A. url  openurl
  Title The dangers of electric lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 1889 Publication (down) The North American Review Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 149 Issue 396 Pages 625-634  
  Keywords Public Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2377  
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