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Author Patrick, G.T.W.
Title The Psychology of Daylight Saving Type Journal Article
Year 1919 Publication (down) The Scientific Monthly Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 385-396
Keywords Commentary
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2411
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Author Bruning, A.; Hölker, F.; Franke, S.; Kleiner, W.; Kloas, W.
Title Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (down) The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 543 Issue Pt A Pages 214-222
Keywords Animals; Fish; Gonadotropins; Light pollution; Melatonin; Perca fluviatilis; Reproduction; Spectral sensitivity
Abstract The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0lx, 1lx, 10lx, 100lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: werner.kloas(at)igb-berlin.de
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26584071 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1302
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Author Jiang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Tian, G.
Title Estimating nitrogen oxides emissions at city scale in China with a nightlight remote sensing model Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (down) The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 544 Issue Pages 1119-1127
Keywords Remote sensing
Abstract Increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over the fast developing regions have been of great concern due to their critical associations with the aggravated haze and climate change. However, little geographically specific data exists for estimating spatio-temporal trends of NOx emissions. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of NOx emissions, a spatially explicit approach based on the continuous satellite observations of artificial nighttime stable lights (NSLs) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) was developed to estimate NOx emissions from the largest emission source of fossil fuel combustion. The NSL based model was established with three types of data including satellite data of nighttime stable lights, geographical data of administrative boundaries, and provincial energy consumptions in China, where a significant growth of NOx emission has experienced during three policy stages corresponding to the 9th-11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 1995-2010). The estimated national NOx emissions increased by 8.2% per year during the study period, and the total annual NOx emissions in China estimated by the NSL-based model were approximately 4.1%-13.8% higher than the previous estimates. The spatio-temporal variations of NOx emissions at city scale were then evaluated by the Moran's I indices. The global Moran's I indices for measuring spatial agglomerations of China's NOx emission increased by 50.7% during 1995-2010. Although the inland cities have shown larger contribution to the emission growth than the more developed coastal cities since 2005, the High-High clusters of NOx emission located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta should still be the major focus of NOx mitigation. Our results indicate that the readily available DMSP/OLS nighttime stable lights based model could be an easily accessible and effective tool for achieving strategic decision making toward NOx reduction.
Address College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26779958 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1335
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Author Portnov, B.A.; Stevens, R.G.; Samociuk, H.; Wakefield, D.; Gregorio, D.I.
Title Light at night and breast cancer incidence in Connecticut: An ecological study of age group effects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (down) The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 572 Issue Pages 1020-1024
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The aim of this study was to test the prediction that within the state of Connecticut, USA, communities with high nighttime outdoor light level would have higher breast cancer incidence rates. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, the oldest within the United States, for years 2005 and 2009 and geocoded to the 829 census tracts in the state. Nighttime light level (LAN) was obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), 1996/97 satellite image, providing a 10-year lag. Regression models were used incorporating the LAN levels and census level data on potential confounders for the whole female population of the state, and for separate age groups. Light level emerged as a significant predictor of breast cancer incidence. After taking account of several potential confounders, the excess risk in the highest LAN level census tracts compared to the lowest was about 63% (RR=1.63; 95% CI=1.41, 1.89). The association of LAN with breast cancer incidence weakened with age; the association was strongest among premenopausal women.
Address Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06030, United States. Electronic address: gregorio@uchc.edu
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Notes PMID:27531467 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1529
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Author Bolton, D.; Mayer-Pinto, M.; Clark, G.F.; Dafforn, K.A.; Brassil, W.A.; Becker, A.; Johnston, E.L.
Title Coastal urban lighting has ecological consequences for multiple trophic levels under the sea Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (down) The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 576 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN). An array of LED spotlights was installed under a wharf to create the ALAN treatments. We used GoPro cameras to film during the day and ALAN treatments, and a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) to film during the night treatments. Fish were most abundant during unlit nights, but were also relatively sedentary. Predatory behaviour was greatest during the day and under ALAN than at night, suggesting that fish are using structures for non-feeding purposes (e.g. shelter) at night, but artificial light dramatically increases their predatory behaviour. Altered predator behaviour corresponded with structural changes to sessile prey assemblages among the experimental lighting treatments. We demonstrate the direct effects of artificial lighting on fish behaviour and the concomitant indirect effects on sessile assemblage structure. Current and future projected use of artificial lights has the potential to significantly affect predator-prey interactions in marine systems by altering habitat use for both predators and prey. However, developments in lighting technology are a promising avenue for mitigation. This is among the first empirical evidence from the marine system on how ALAN can directly alter predation, a fundamental ecosystem process, and have indirect trophic consequences.
Address Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:27780095 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1548
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