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Author Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M
Title Red aviation lights on wind turbines do not increase bat-turbine collisions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 354-358
Keywords animals; flying mammals; foraging; Light wavelength
Abstract Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why bat–wind turbine collisions occur; however, most of these hypotheses have yet to be tested and with high numbers of bat fatalities reported annually at wind resource facilities globally, there is a real need to understand this phenomenon. In this study, we tested whether aviation lighting influenced the number of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Thus, at a utility-scale wind facility in north-central Texas, we explored whether bat fatalities were higher at wind turbines with red flashing aviation lighting compared with turbines without such lighting. Over a 5-year period, we recorded fatalities at wind turbines as part of a long-term fatality monitoring programme. During standardized searches, we collected 916 bat carcasses representing all six species known to be present at the site. We found that bat fatalities were higher at wind turbines without aviation lighting compared with those with; a pattern that was driven by one species, Lasiurus borealis, and there was no significant difference between fatalities at wind turbines with or without aviation lighting for any other species. Our study demonstrates that wind turbines should continue to be fitted with synchronized, flashing red aviation lights, as this form of lighting does not appear to be one of the potential causes of bat fatalities at wind resource facilities. We therefore support further research that explores possible alternative causes of bat–wind turbine interactions. More specifically, we reiterate that there is still a pressing need to determine the aspects of bat ecology that result in individuals coming into contact with wind turbines.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1578
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Author Russo, D.; Cistrone, L.; Libralato, N.; Korine, C.; Jones, G.; Ancillotto, L.
Title Adverse effects of artificial illumination on bat drinking activity Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim Conserv
Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 492-501
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial illumination at night (ALAN) alters many aspects of animal behaviour. Commuting and foraging bats have been found to be affected by ALAN, but no study has yet addressed the impact of lighting on drinking activity, despite its critical importance for bats. We experimentally illuminated cattle troughs used by drinking bats at four forest sites in Italy, and compared drinking activity and foraging activity under lit and dark conditions. We predicted that (1) the number of bat species and drinking events will be lower under illumination and (2) forest bat species will be more affected than edge specialists. We recorded 2549 drinking events from 12 species or species groups, most of which decreased drinking activity under illumination. The effects of ALAN on drinking were stronger than on foraging. Forest species never drank when the light was on. Edge‐foraging species reduced drinking activity while also increasing foraging under lit conditions. We highlight a previously overlooked negative effect of ALAN on bats, whose implications may be locally catastrophic. Given the importance of water sites for both bat foraging and drinking, their illumination should be forbidden, appropriately mitigated or, if necessary, compensated for with the creation of alternative drinking sites.
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ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1860
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Author Russo, D., Ancillotto, L., Cistrone, L., Libralato, N., Domer, A., Cohen, S., Korine, C.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on drinking bats: a field test in forest and desert habitats Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Bats show pronounced and often‐adverse reactions to artificial illumination at night (ALAN) when commuting, roosting or foraging. ALAN also affects bat drinking activity, at least when lighting occurs over short intervals. We tested whether continuous illumination of drinking sites over 4‐h periods would lead bats to tolerate ALAN and resume drinking in the course of the night. We conducted our experiments in forest (Italy) and desert (Israel) sites to test whether in the latter habitat, where water is scarce, a greater motivation to drink might lead to less adverse bat reactions. We recorded 6853 drinking buzzes and 1647 feeding buzzes from 17 species and one species group. In the forest sites, species that hunt in open spaces or along forest edges showed little (P. pipistrellus and H. savii) or no (P. kuhlii and N. leisleri) drinking activity decrease, while those associated with forest interiors (Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus auritus and bats in the genus Myotis) exhibited a strong negative response. In the desert sites, all studied species reduced drinking activity, yet in the desert populations of P. kuhlii we recorded stronger adverse reactions only far from human settlements. The harsh reactions that the desert bat species showed towards ALAN rule out any effect of a greater motivation to drink. Illumination had no effect on foraging by most species, except in the forest sites, where Pipistrellus kuhlii and Nyctalus leisleri increased foraging when the light was on, and in the desert sites, where Hypsugo bodenheimeri decreased foraging in such situations. The progressive human encroachment that is taking place in many world regions on both forests and especially deserts, where few sites for drinking are available, may jeopardize bat populations also through increased exposure to ALAN.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2075
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Author Garrett, J. K., Donald, P. F., & Gaston, K. J.
Title Skyglow extends into the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages cv.12480
Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Biodiversity; Key Biodiversity Area; KBA
Abstract The proportion of the Earth’s surface that experiences a naturally dark environment at night is rapidly declining with the introduction of artificial light. Biological impacts of this change have been documented from genes to ecosystems, and for a wide diversity of environments and organisms. The likely severity of these impacts depends heavily on the relationship between the distribution of artificial night-time lighting and biodiversity. Here, we carry out a global assessment of the overlap between areas of conservation priority and the most recent atlas of artificial skyglow. We show that of the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), less than a third have completely pristine night-time skies, about a half lie entirely under artificially bright skies and only about a fifth contain no area in which night-time skies are not polluted to the zenith. The extent of light pollution of KBAs varies by region, affecting the greatest proportion of KBAs in Europe and the Middle East. Statistical modelling revealed associations between light pollution within KBAs and associated levels of both gross domestic product and human population density. This suggests that these patterns will worsen with continued economic development and growth in the human population
Address Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK; j.k.garrett(at)exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2309
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Author Navas Gonzalez, F.J.; Jordana Vidal, J.; Pizarro Inostroza, G.; Arando Arbulu, A.; Delgado Bermejo, J.V.
Title Can Donkey Behavior and Cognition Be Used to Trace Back, Explain, or Forecast Moon Cycle and Weather Events? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)
Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract Donkeys have been reported to be highly sensitive to environmental changes. Their 8900-8400-year-old evolution process made them interact with diverse environmental situations that were very distant from their harsh origins. These changing situations not only affect donkeys' short-term behavior but may also determine their long-term cognitive skills from birth. Thus, animal behavior becomes a useful tool to obtain past, present or predict information from the environmental situation of a particular area. We performed an operant conditioning test on 300 donkeys to assess their response type, mood, response intensity, and learning capabilities, while we simultaneously registered 14 categorical environmental factors. We quantified the effect power of such environmental factors on donkey behavior and cognition. We used principal component analysis (CATPCA) to reduce the number of factors affecting each behavioral variable and built categorical regression (CATREG) equations to model for the effects of potential factor combinations. Effect power ranged from 7.9% for the birth season on learning (p < 0.05) to 38.8% for birth moon phase on mood (p < 0.001). CATPCA suggests the percentage of variance explained by a four-dimension-model (comprising the dimensions of response type, mood, response intensity and learning capabilities), is 75.9%. CATREG suggests environmental predictors explain 28.8% of the variability of response type, 37.0% of mood, and 37.5% of response intensity, and learning capabilities.
Address The Worldwide Donkey Breeds Project, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain. juanviagr218@gmail.com
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ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30463193 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2083
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