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Author Schoeman, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution at stadiums favors urban exploiter bats: Selected urban exploiter bats hunt insects at stadiums Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim. Conserv.  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 120–130  
  Keywords Animals; artificial light; light pollution; Molossidae; predator–prey interactions; urban avoiders; urban exploiters; bats; bats; mammals; Chaerephon pumilus; Tadarida aegyptiaca; Otomops martiensseni; Mops condylurus  
  Abstract Artificial night lighting by humans may destabilize ecosystems by altering light-dependent biological processes of organisms and changing the availability of light and darkness as resources of food, information and refuge. I tested the hypothesis that urban exploiters should be more likely to utilize bright, unpredictable light pollution sources such as sport stadiums and building sites than urban avoiders. I quantified insectivorous bat activity and feeding attempts at seven sport stadiums under light and dark treatments using acoustic monitoring of echolocation calls. Species richness estimators indicated that stadium inventories were complete. Activity and feeding attempts were significantly higher at lit stadiums than dark stadiums, irrespective of season or surrounding human land use. Bats exhibited species-specific differences in utilization of stadiums. As predicted, four urban exploiters – Chaerephon pumilus, Tadarida aegyptiaca, Otomops martiensseni and Scotophilus dinganii – dominated activity and feeding attempts at lit stadiums, yet one urban exploiter – Mops condylurus – was associated with dark stadiums. Activity levels at both dark and light stadiums were negatively correlated with peak echolocation frequency. Landscape-scale and finer scale abiotic variables were poor predictors of bat activity and feeding attempts. My results suggest that in addition to abiotic processes associated with urbanization, light pollution at sport stadiums may homogenize urban bat diversity by favoring selected urban exploiters.  
  Address School of Life Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; schoemanc(at)ukzn.ac.za  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1223  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M url  doi
openurl 
  Title Red aviation lights on wind turbines do not increase bat-turbine collisions Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 354-358  
  Keywords animals; flying mammals; foraging; Light wavelength  
  Abstract Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why bat–wind turbine collisions occur; however, most of these hypotheses have yet to be tested and with high numbers of bat fatalities reported annually at wind resource facilities globally, there is a real need to understand this phenomenon. In this study, we tested whether aviation lighting influenced the number of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Thus, at a utility-scale wind facility in north-central Texas, we explored whether bat fatalities were higher at wind turbines with red flashing aviation lighting compared with turbines without such lighting. Over a 5-year period, we recorded fatalities at wind turbines as part of a long-term fatality monitoring programme. During standardized searches, we collected 916 bat carcasses representing all six species known to be present at the site. We found that bat fatalities were higher at wind turbines without aviation lighting compared with those with; a pattern that was driven by one species, Lasiurus borealis, and there was no significant difference between fatalities at wind turbines with or without aviation lighting for any other species. Our study demonstrates that wind turbines should continue to be fitted with synchronized, flashing red aviation lights, as this form of lighting does not appear to be one of the potential causes of bat fatalities at wind resource facilities. We therefore support further research that explores possible alternative causes of bat–wind turbine interactions. More specifically, we reiterate that there is still a pressing need to determine the aspects of bat ecology that result in individuals coming into contact with wind turbines.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1578  
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Author Russo, D.; Cistrone, L.; Libralato, N.; Korine, C.; Jones, G.; Ancillotto, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adverse effects of artificial illumination on bat drinking activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim Conserv  
  Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 492-501  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial illumination at night (ALAN) alters many aspects of animal behaviour. Commuting and foraging bats have been found to be affected by ALAN, but no study has yet addressed the impact of lighting on drinking activity, despite its critical importance for bats. We experimentally illuminated cattle troughs used by drinking bats at four forest sites in Italy, and compared drinking activity and foraging activity under lit and dark conditions. We predicted that (1) the number of bat species and drinking events will be lower under illumination and (2) forest bat species will be more affected than edge specialists. We recorded 2549 drinking events from 12 species or species groups, most of which decreased drinking activity under illumination. The effects of ALAN on drinking were stronger than on foraging. Forest species never drank when the light was on. Edge‐foraging species reduced drinking activity while also increasing foraging under lit conditions. We highlight a previously overlooked negative effect of ALAN on bats, whose implications may be locally catastrophic. Given the importance of water sites for both bat foraging and drinking, their illumination should be forbidden, appropriately mitigated or, if necessary, compensated for with the creation of alternative drinking sites.  
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  ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1860  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Russo, D., Ancillotto, L., Cistrone, L., Libralato, N., Domer, A., Cohen, S., Korine, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of artificial illumination on drinking bats: a field test in forest and desert habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume In press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Bats show pronounced and often‐adverse reactions to artificial illumination at night (ALAN) when commuting, roosting or foraging. ALAN also affects bat drinking activity, at least when lighting occurs over short intervals. We tested whether continuous illumination of drinking sites over 4‐h periods would lead bats to tolerate ALAN and resume drinking in the course of the night. We conducted our experiments in forest (Italy) and desert (Israel) sites to test whether in the latter habitat, where water is scarce, a greater motivation to drink might lead to less adverse bat reactions. We recorded 6853 drinking buzzes and 1647 feeding buzzes from 17 species and one species group. In the forest sites, species that hunt in open spaces or along forest edges showed little (P. pipistrellus and H. savii) or no (P. kuhlii and N. leisleri) drinking activity decrease, while those associated with forest interiors (Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus auritus and bats in the genus Myotis) exhibited a strong negative response. In the desert sites, all studied species reduced drinking activity, yet in the desert populations of P. kuhlii we recorded stronger adverse reactions only far from human settlements. The harsh reactions that the desert bat species showed towards ALAN rule out any effect of a greater motivation to drink. Illumination had no effect on foraging by most species, except in the forest sites, where Pipistrellus kuhlii and Nyctalus leisleri increased foraging when the light was on, and in the desert sites, where Hypsugo bodenheimeri decreased foraging in such situations. The progressive human encroachment that is taking place in many world regions on both forests and especially deserts, where few sites for drinking are available, may jeopardize bat populations also through increased exposure to ALAN.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2075  
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Author Garrett, J. K., Donald, P. F., & Gaston, K. J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow extends into the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages cv.12480  
  Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Biodiversity; Key Biodiversity Area; KBA  
  Abstract The proportion of the Earth’s surface that experiences a naturally dark environment at night is rapidly declining with the introduction of artificial light. Biological impacts of this change have been documented from genes to ecosystems, and for a wide diversity of environments and organisms. The likely severity of these impacts depends heavily on the relationship between the distribution of artificial night-time lighting and biodiversity. Here, we carry out a global assessment of the overlap between areas of conservation priority and the most recent atlas of artificial skyglow. We show that of the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), less than a third have completely pristine night-time skies, about a half lie entirely under artificially bright skies and only about a fifth contain no area in which night-time skies are not polluted to the zenith. The extent of light pollution of KBAs varies by region, affecting the greatest proportion of KBAs in Europe and the Middle East. Statistical modelling revealed associations between light pollution within KBAs and associated levels of both gross domestic product and human population density. This suggests that these patterns will worsen with continued economic development and growth in the human population  
  Address Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK; j.k.garrett(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2309  
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