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Author Reagan, I.J.; Brumbelow, M.; Frischmann, T.
Title On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 76 Issue Pages 74-82
Keywords security; lighting
Abstract Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested.
Address Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Research 1005 N Glebe Rd., Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22201, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25603548 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1251
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Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I.
Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.
Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160
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Author Shih, K.-T.; Liu, J.-S.; Shyu, F.; Yeh, S.-L.; Chen, H.H.
Title Blocking harmful blue light while preserving image color appearance Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (up) ACM Transactions on Graphics Abbreviated Journal Tog
Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 1-10
Keywords Lighting; Vision
Abstract Recent study in vision science has shown that blue light in a certain frequency band affects human circadian rhythm and impairs our health. Although applying a light blocker to an image display can block the harmful blue light, it inevitably makes an image look like an aged photo. In this paper, we show that it is possible to reduce harmful blue light while preserving the blue appearance of an image. Moreover, we optimize the spectral transmittance profile of blue light blocker based on psychophysical data and develop a color compensation algorithm to minimize color distortion. A prototype using notch filters is built as a proof of concept.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0730-0301 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1640
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P.
Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica
Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1533
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Author Boldogh, S.; Dobrosi, D.; Samu, P.
Title The effects of the illumination of buildings on house-dwelling bats and its conservation consequences Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication (up) Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Chiropterologica
Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 527-534
Keywords Animals
Abstract
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1508-1109 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1003
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