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Author Petrželková, K. J.; Downs, N. C.; Zukal, J.; Racey, P. A.
Title A comparison between emergence and return activity in pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication (up) Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 381-390
Keywords animals; fying mammals: animal behaviour
Abstract Bats may be vulnerable to predation during evening emergence and morning return to their roosts. Early emergence increases the risk of exposure to raptorial birds, but emerging late confers a risk of missing the dusk peak of aerial insects. Here, both emergence and return activity was studied in detail at the same roosts for the first time. We investigated six maternity colonies of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) in NE Scotland and recorded light levels and time of emergence and return of the bats with respect to sunset and sunrise on the same nights. Parameters of return activity generally occurred at lower light intensities than those of emergence. Therefore, the interval between dawn return and sunrise was generally longer than that between sunset and dusk emergence. Emergence and return were equal in duration. Bats clustered more on emergence in comparison with return during pregnancy and lactation, whereas during postlactation this trend was reversed.
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Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1598
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Author Chen, B.; Shi, G.; Wang, B.; Zhao, J.; Tan, S.
Title Estimation of the anthropogenic heat release distribution in China from 1992 to 2009 Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication (up) Acta Meteorologica Sinica Abbreviated Journal Acta Meteorol Sin
Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 507-515
Keywords DMSP/OLS; estimation; distribution; anthropogenic heat flux; China; remote sensing
Abstract Stable light data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellites and authoritative energy consumption data distributed by National Bureau of Statistics of China were applied to estimating the distribution of anthropogenic heat release in China from 1992 to 2009. A strong linear relationship was found between DMSP/OLS digital number data and anthropogenic heat flux density (AHFD). The results indicate that anthropogenic heat release in China was geographically concentrated and was fundamentally correlated with economic activities. The anthropogenic heat release in economically developed areas in northern, eastern, and southern China was much larger than other regions, whereas it was very small in northwestern and southwestern China. The mean AHFD in China increased from 0.07 W m−2 in 1978 to 0.28 W m−2 in 2008. The results indicate that in the anthropogenic heat-concentrated regions of Beijing, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta, the AHFD levels were much higher than the average. The effect of aggravating anthropogenic heat release on climate change deserves further investigation.
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ISSN 0894-0525 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 215
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Author Santos, C.D.; Miranda, A.C.; Granadeiro, J.P.; Lourenço, P.M.; Saraiva, S.; Palmeirim, J.M.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication (up) Acta Oecologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Oecologica
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 166-172
Keywords waders; light pollution; animals
Abstract Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.
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ISSN 1146609X ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 46
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Author van der Burght, B.W.; Hansen, M.; Olsen, J.; Zhou, J.; Wu, Y.; Nissen, M.H.; Sparrow, J.R.
Title Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Acta Ophthalmologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Ophthalmol
Volume 91 Issue 7 Pages e537-45
Keywords Apoptosis; Cell Line; Cell Survival; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Light; Lipofuscin/genetics; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Pyridinium Compounds; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism/pathology/*radiation effects; Retinoids/*genetics; Transcriptome; A2e; age-related macular degeneration; apoptosis; complement cascade; gene expression; retinal pigment epithelial cells; blue light; retinal pigment epithelial; epigenetics
Abstract PURPOSE: Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). METHODS: A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells irradiated with blue light were clearly distinguishable from the control samples. We found differential regulation of genes belonging to the following functional groups: transcription factors, stress response, apoptosis and immune response. Among the last mentioned were downregulation of four genes that coded for proteins that have an inhibitory effect on the complement cascade: (complement factor H, complement factor H-related 1, complement factor I and vitronectin) and of two belonging to the classical pathway (complement component 1, s subcomponent and complement component 1, r subcomponent). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that blue light irradiation of A2E-laden RPE cells can alter the transcription of genes belonging to different functional pathways including stress response, apoptosis and the immune response. We suggest that these molecules may be associated to the pathogenesis of AMD and can potentially serve as future therapeutic targets.
Address Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Eye Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
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ISSN 1755-375X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23742627 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 346
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Author Kwak, M.J.; Lee, S.H.; Khaine, I.; Je, S.M.; Lee, T.Y.; You, H.N.; Lee, H.K.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, I.; Woo, S.Y.
Title Stomatal movements depend on interactions between external night light cue and internal signals activated by rhythmic starch turnover and abscisic acid (ABA) levels at dawn and dusk Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (up) Acta Physiologiae Plantarum Abbreviated Journal Acta Physiol Plant
Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages
Keywords Plants
Abstract Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) is a widespread hardwood tree of great ecological and economic value. Light pollution caused by excessive and indiscriminate exposure to artificial night light has emerged as a new risk factor due to its adverse effects related to energy waste, sleep disorders, anthropogenic habitat disturbance, and perceptual disorder of daily and seasonal rhythms in wildlife. However, it remains unknown how associations between artificial night light and stomatal behaviors controlled by internal signals are established. After continuous exposure to artificial light at night over 3 years, leaves in the experimental set-up were measured for stomatal movements, starch turnover, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels, and chloroplast ultrastructure during the growing season. Yellow poplar showed dynamic changes in stomatal movement, starch turnover, and endogenous ABA levels in response to day/artificial night light cycle, resulting in reduction of circadian phase-shifting capacity at both dusk and dawn and normal chloroplast development as compared with natural night. Nighttime light exposure may act as a major factor for disorder of circadian and circannual rhythms as well as physiological and ultrastructural repressor in plants, via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. Our study suggests that these dynamic responses can provide advantageous insights that complement the current knowledge on light pollution.
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ISSN 0137-5881 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1682
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