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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States  
  Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.  
  Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ceola, S.; Montanari, A.; Parajka, J.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.; Laio, F. url  openurl
  Title Human signatures derived from nighttime lights along the Eastern Alpine river network in Austria and Italy Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Society; nightlights; human presence; river network; Strahler order; DMSP-OLS; OLS; DMSP-OLS; Austria; Italy; Eastern Alpine  
  Abstract Understanding how human settlements and economic activities are distributed with reference to the geographical location of streams and rivers is of fundamental relevance for several issues, such as flood risk management, drought management related to increased water demands by human population, fluvial ecosystem services, water pollution and water exploitation. Besides the spatial distribution, the evolution in time of the human presence constitutes an additional key question. This work aims at understanding and analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of human settlements and associated economic activity, derived from nighttime lights, in the Eastern Alpine region. Nightlights, available at a fine spatial resolution and for a 22-year period, constitute an

excellent data base, which allows one to explore in details human signatures. In this experiment, nightlights are associated to five distinct distance-from-river classes. Our results clearly point out an overall enhancement of human presence across the considered distance classes during the last 22 years, though presenting some differences among the study regions. In particular, the river network delineation, by considering different groups of river pixels based on the Strahler order, is found to play a central role in the identification of nightlight spatio-temporal trends.
 
  Address Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica, Ambientale e dei Materiali, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Association of Hydrological Sciences Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference 7th International Water Resources Management Conference of ICWRS, 18–20 May 2016, Bochum, Germany  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1432  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Grove, L. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Reducing Acadia's Light Pollution Type Manuscript
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Conservation; Society; Economics; Acadia National Park; Maine; benefit cost analysis; astrotourism; contingent valuation method; dark sky places; dark sky park  
  Abstract Acadia National Park is among the most visited national parks in the United States, attracting millions of people per year. Thousands of those visitors come to the park for “astro-tourism,” as Acadia has become one of the premier stargazing locations on the east coast. There remains, however, the continued threat from light pollution from the surrounding communities that negatively affects Acadia's darkness, contributing to a lesser visitor experience and potentially harming native ecosystems. Although park management and community organizations have engaged in significant efforts to decrease Acadia's nighttime light levels and raise awareness among visitors and locals regarding the importance of darkness, the park still seek to continue to decrease light pollution. This report developed policy options that could help solve the long-term policy goal of decreasing nighttime lighting levels within and around Acadia while also using the International Dark-Sky Association's Dark-Sky Park designation requirements as a reasonable, short-term policy benchmark.

Working within existing organizations, the policy options crafted to address Acadia’s nighttime lighting levels were analyzed both qualitatively through a criteria evaluation and quantitatively through a Benefit Cost Analysis.

The options included 1) the formation of a Darkness Coalition within the League of Towns, 2) a reimagining of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Dark-Sky Project into the Dark-Sky Taskforce, 3) the creation of a Lighting Consultant position paid through the Friends of Acadia Wild Acadia initiative, and 4) the combination of Coalition and the Taskforce into the League of Towns – Dark-Sky Partnership (LOT-DSP). The report recommends the adoption of Option 4 – the creation of the LOT – DSP. While this option does not provide the greatest estimated monetary net value compared to the Status Quo in the quantitative evaluation, it still provides an estimated benefit of about $105 million over the course of five years and is the strongest option in the qualitative analysis. The LOT – DSP provides the best opportunity for Acadia to achieve legitimate and long-lasting nighttime light level reduction.
 
  Address Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, Garrett Hall, 235 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400893, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4893 USA; locher.grove(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis  
  Publisher University of Virginia Place of Publication Charlottesville Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1449  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Campaign to Protect Rural England url  openurl
  Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain  
  Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
 
  Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Villamizar, N.; García-Alcazar, A.; Sánchez-Vázquez, F. J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of light spectrum and photoperiod on the growth, development and survival of European sea bass (Dicentrarchuslabrax) larvae Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 292 Issue 1-2 Pages 80-86  
  Keywords animals; fish; light spectrum; photoperiod  
  Abstract This study investigates how the characteristics (spectrum and photoperiod) of artificial light affect European sea bass eggs and larvae from &#8722; 1 to 40 days post-hatching. Fertilised eggs and larvae were reared under five different light treatments: 12L:12D red light (LDR; half-peak bandwidth = 641–718 nm), 12L:12D blue light (LDB; half-peak bandwidth = 435–500 nm), 12L:12D broad-spectrum white light (LDW; 367 < &#955; < 1057 nm), 24L:0D broad-spectrum white light (LL) and 0L:24D (DD). The results showed that total length at day post-hatching 40 was significantly larger in larvae reared under LDB (15.4 ± 0.6 mm) and LL (15.2 ± 0.6 mm) than in larvae reared under LDR (11.7 ± 0.7 mm). Overall wet weight was highest under LDB (21.6 ± 2.02 mgr) and lowest in LDR larvae (13.6 ± 1.48 mgr). Yolk sac and oil globule absorption occurred more slowly in LDR and DD larvae, while LDB larvae developed their fin, teeth and swim bladder significantly earlier than the rest of the groups. DD larvae were unable to capture food and mortality was 100% by day post-hatching 18, while LDR larvae did not feed on rotifers, but fed on Artemia from day post-hatching 16 onwards. The best survival was obtained with the LL treatment, although significantly more problems with swim bladder development and lower jaw malformations were also identified in this group. In summary, these results highlight the key role of the light spectrum and photoperiod for European sea bass larvae, the best performance being achieved under the light conditions that best approached those of their natural aquatic environment (LDB). These findings should be considered when designing rearing protocols for larvae in aquaculture.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1606  
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