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Author ffrench-Constant, R.; Somers-Yeates, R.; Bennie, J.; Economou, T.; Hodgson, D.; Spalding, A.; McGregor, P.
Title Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci
Volume 283 Issue 1833 Pages 1-9
Keywords Plants; light pollution, phenology, species interactions, tree budburst, temperature, urban heat islands; United Kingdom
Abstract The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban ‘heat-island’ effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, and 2 Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9EZ, UK; rf222(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1472
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Author Zhang, J.-C.; Ge, L.; Lu, X.-M.; Cao, Z.-H.; Chen, X.; Mao, Y.-N.; Jiang, X.-J.
Title Astronomical Observing Conditions at Xinglong Observatory from 2007 to 2014 Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume 127 Issue 958 Pages 1292-1306
Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; observatories; China; Xinglong; Sky Quality Meter; SQM
Abstract Xinglong Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), is one of the major optical observatories in China, which hosts nine optical telescopes including the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and the 2.16 m reflector. Scientific research from these telescopes is focused on stars, galaxies, and exoplanets using multicolor photometry and spectroscopic observations. Therefore, it is important to provide the observing conditions of the site, in detail, to the astronomers for an efficient use of these facilities. In this article, we present the characterization of observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory based on the monitoring of meteorology, seeing and sky brightness during the period from 2007 to 2014. Meteorological data were collected from a commercial Automatic Weather Station (AWS), calibrated by China Meteorological Administration. Mean and median wind speed are almost constant during the period analyzed and ranged from 1.0 to 3.5 m s-1. However, high wind speed (≥15 m s-1) interrupts observations, mainly, during the winter and spring. Statistical analysis of air temperature showed the temperature difference between daytime and nighttime, which can be solved by opening the ventilation device and the slit of the dome at least 1 hr before observations. Analysis resulted in average percentage of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights are 32% and 63% per year, respectively. The distribution of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights has a significant seasonal tendency, worse in summer due to clouds, dust, and high humidity. Seeing measurements were obtained using the Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM). Mean and median values of seeing over 1 year are around 1.9″ and 1.7″, respectively. Eighty percent of nights with seeing values are below 2.6″, whereas the distribution peaks around 1.8″. The measurements of sky brightness are acquired from the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) and photometric observations. Analysis shows that sky brightness at the zenith is around 21.1 mag arcsec-2 and becomes brighter with a larger zenith angle. Sky brightness increases due to the light pollution of the surrounding cities, Beijing, Tangshan, and Chengde. Significant influence toward the direction of Beijing, at an altitude of 30°, can increase the sky brightness up to 20.0 mag arcsec-2. Sky brightness reduces after midnight, mainly because of the influence of city lights and the artificial acts. The above results suggest that Xinglong Observatory is still a good site for astronomical observations. Our analysis of the observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory can be used as a reference to the observers on targets selection, observing strategy, and telescope operation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Royal Astronomical Societynomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1365
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Author Pu, G.; Zen, D.; Mo, L.; He, W.; Zhou, L.; Huang, K.; Liao, J.; Qiu, S.; Chai, S.
Title Does artificial light at night change the impact of silver nanoparticles on microbial decomposers and leaf litter decomposition in streams? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Science: Nano Abbreviated Journal Environ. Sci.: Nano
Volume 6 Issue Pages 1728-1739
Keywords Ecology; silver nanoparticles; aquatic ecosystems
Abstract The toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to aquatic species and ecosystem processes have been the focus of increasing research in ecology, but their effects under different environmental stressors, such as the ongoing anthropogenic artificial light at night (ALAN) which can cause a series of ecological effects and will potentially interact with other stressors, remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the combined effects of AgNP and ALAN on the activities and community structure of fungi and bacteria associated to plant litter in a stream. The results showed that ALAN not only led to changes in the average hydrodynamic diameter, ζ-potential and dissolved concentration of AgNP but also inhibited the enzyme activities of leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (PER) associated to microbes involved in litter decomposition. The negative effect of AgNP on the decomposition of Pterocarya stenoptera leaf litter was alleviated by ALAN owing to the reduction of Ag+ concentration in the microcosm and lignin content in the leaf litter in the A-AgNP treatments, the enhancement of β-glucosidase (β-G) activities and the increase of microbial biomass. The effect of ALAN alone or combined with AgNP or AgNO3 on the taxonomic composition of fungi was much greater than that on bacteria. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) demonstrated that each treatment had its own fungal and bacterial indicator taxa, from the phylum to genus levels, indicating that the microbial communities associated with litter decomposition can change their constituent taxa to cope with different stressors. These results reveal that ALAN can decrease the toxicity of AgNP and highlight the importance of considering ALAN during the assessment of the risk posed by nanoparticles to freshwater biota and ecosystem processes.
Address Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, China; pukouchy(at)hotmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Royal Astronomical Society of Chemistry Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-8153 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2332
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Posch, T.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title On the relation between zenith sky brightness and horizontal illuminance Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 446 Issue Pages 2895–2901
Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; numerical methods
Abstract The effects of artificial light at night are an emergent research topic for astronomers, physicists, engineers and biologists around the world. This leads to a need for measurements of the night sky brightness (= diffuse luminance of the night sky) and nocturnal illuminance. Currently, the most sensitive light meters measure the zenith sky brightness in mag_V/arcsec^2 or – less frequently – in cd/m^2. However, the horizontal illuminance resulting only from the night sky is an important source of information that is difficult to obtain with common instruments. Here we present a set of approximations to convert the zenith luminance into horizontal illuminance. Three different approximations are presented for three idealized atmospheric conditions: homogeneous sky brightness, an isotropically scattering atmosphere and a turbid atmosphere. We also apply the resulting conversion formulae to experimental data on night sky luminance, obtained during the past three years.
Address Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Royal Astronomical Society Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1076
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Author Hasenöhrl, U; Krause, K.; Meier, J.; Pottharst, M.
Title Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society Type Book Whole
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Society; light pollution; urban; cities; city planning; urban development
Abstract After decades “in the shadows”, urban lighting is re-emerging as a matter of public debate. Long-standing truths are increasingly questioned as a confluence of developments affects lighting itself and the way it is viewed. Light has become an integral element of place-making and energy-saving initiatives alike. Rapidly evolving lighting technologies are opening up new possibilities, but also posing new challenges to planners, and awareness is growing that artificial illumination is not purely benign but can actually constitute a form of pollution. As a result, public policy frameworks, incentives and initiatives are undergoing a phase of innovation and change that will affect how cities are lit for years to come.

The first comprehensive compilation of current scientific discussions on urban lighting and light pollution from a social science and humanities perspective, Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society contributes to an evolving international debate on an increasingly controversial topic. The contributions draw a rich panorama of the manifold discourses connected with artificial illumination in the past and present – from early attempts to promote new lighting technologies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to current debates on restricting its excessive usage in public space and the protection of darkness. By bringing together a cross-section of current findings and debates on urban lighting and light pollution from a wide variety of disciplines, it reflects that artificial lighting is multifaceted in its qualities, utilisation and interpretation.

Including case studies from the United States, Europe, and the UK, Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society is one of the first to take a serious assessment of light, pollution, and places and is a valuable resource for planners, policy makers and students in related subjects.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Routledge Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 9781138813960 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1046
Permanent link to this record