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Author Van Doren, B.; Horton, K.G.; Dokter, A.M.; Klinck, H.; Elbin, S.B., Farnsworth, A.; Dokter, A.M; Klinck, H.; Elbin, S.B.; Farnsworth, A.
Title High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird migration Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Publications of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS
Volume 114 Issue 42 Pages 11175-11180
Keywords Animals; artificial light; nocturnal migration; remote sensing; radar; ornithology; flight calls
Abstract Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring the beams of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum's “Tribute in Light” in New York, quantifying behavioral responses with radar and acoustic sensors and modeling disorientation and attraction with simulations. This single light source induced significant behavioral alterations in birds, even in good visibility conditions, in this heavily photopolluted environment, and to altitudes up to 4 km. We estimate that the installation influenced ≈1.1 million birds during our study period of 7 d over 7 y. When the installation was illuminated, birds aggregated in high densities, decreased flight speeds, followed circular flight paths, and vocalized frequently. Simulations revealed a high probability of disorientation and subsequent attraction for nearby birds, and bird densities near the installation exceeded magnitudes 20 times greater than surrounding baseline densities during each year’s observations. However, behavioral disruptions disappeared when lights were extinguished, suggesting that selective removal of light during nights with substantial bird migration is a viable strategy for minimizing potentially fatal interactions among ALAN, structures, and birds. Our results also highlight the value of additional studies describing behavioral patterns of nocturnally migrating birds in powerful lights in urban areas as well as conservation implications for such lighting installations.
Address Information Science Program, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA; af27{at}cornell.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) PNAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1091-6490 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1741
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Author Rodríguez, A.; Burgan, G.; Dann, P.; Jessop, R.; Negro, J.J.; Chiaradia, A.
Title Fatal Attraction of Short-Tailed Shearwaters to Artificial Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PLOS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLOS ONE
Volume 9 Issue Pages e110114
Keywords
Abstract Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999–2013). We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4–8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive) in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive). While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.
Address Animals; light pollution; ecology; shearwater; short-tailed shearwaters; Ardenna tenuirostris; Phillip Island; Australia; mortality; birds
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 678
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Author Walmsley, L.; Hanna, L.; Mouland, J.; Martial, F.; West, A.; Smedley, A.R.; Bechtold, D.A.; Webb, A.R.; Lucas, R.J.; Brown, T.M.
Title Colour As a Signal for Entraining the Mammalian Circadian Clock Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication PLoS Biology Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol
Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages e1002127
Keywords Animals; biology; color; circadian disruption; animal models; mouse models; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus; Photoperiod; twilight
Abstract Twilight is characterised by changes in both quantity (“irradiance”) and quality (“colour”) of light. Animals use the variation in irradiance to adjust their internal circadian clocks, aligning their behaviour and physiology with the solar cycle. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in colour also contribute to this entrainment process. Using environmental measurements, we show here that mammalian blue-yellow colour discrimination provides a more reliable method of tracking twilight progression than simply measuring irradiance. We next use electrophysiological recordings to demonstrate that neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock display the cone-dependent spectral opponency required to make use of this information. Thus, our data show that some clock neurons are highly sensitive to changes in spectral composition occurring over twilight and that this input dictates their response to changes in irradiance. Finally, using mice housed under photoperiods with simulated dawn/dusk transitions, we confirm that spectral changes occurring during twilight are required for appropriate circadian alignment under natural conditions. Together, these data reveal a new sensory mechanism for telling time of day that would be available to any mammalian species capable of chromatic vision.
Address Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1544-9173 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25884537 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1152
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Author van Diepen, H.C.; Foster, R.G.; Meijer, J.H.
Title A colourful clock Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication PLoS Biology Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol
Volume 13 Issue 5 Pages e1002160
Keywords Animals; Commentary; *Circadian Rhythm; suprachiasmatic nuclei; melanopsin; retinal ganglion cells; entrainment; photoperiod
Abstract Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains) the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4). The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.
Address Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University medical School, Leiden, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1544-9173 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25996907; PMCID:PMC4440787 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1183
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Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.
Title The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages e0150884
Keywords Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior
Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.
Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403
Permanent link to this record