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Author Zhao, X.; Zhang M.; Che, X.; Zou, F.
Title Blue light attracts nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution is increasing and artificial light sources have great impacts on animals. For migrating birds, collisions caused by artificial light pollution are a significant source of mortality. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that birds have different visual sensitivities to different colors of light, but few field experiments have compared birds’ responses to light of different wavelengths. We used 3 monochromatic lights (red, green, and blue) and polychromatic yellow light to study the impact of wavelength on phototaxis at 2 gathering sites of nocturnally migrating birds in Southwest China. For both sites, short-wavelength blue light caused the strongest phototactic response. In contrast, birds were rarely attracted to long-wavelength red light. The attractive effect of blue light was greatest during nights with fog and headwinds. As rapid urbanization and industrialization cause an increase in artificial light, we suggest that switching to longer wavelength lights is a convenient and economically effective way to reduce bird collisions.

摘要

目前地球上光污染日益严重,五颜六色的人工光源对生态系统造成了很大影响。就鸟类而言,在世界各地已发生了很多鸟类撞击人工光源的事件。实验室研究表明,鸟类对不同颜色的光有不同的视觉敏感度,但很少有野外实验比较鸟类对不同波长光的反应。我们在中国西南地区的两个夜间候鸟迁徙聚集点使用三种单色光(红、绿、蓝)和一种复合光(黄),研究了光波长对的候鸟趋光性的影响。研究表明,短波长的蓝光引起了候鸟最强烈的趋光性反应。相反,鸟类很少被长波长的红光所吸引。特别是在有雾和逆风的夜晚,蓝光的吸引力最大。由于快速的城市化和工业化导致人造光的增加,我们认为使用长波光是一个减少鸟类碰撞光源的方便和经济有效的方式。
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2896
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Author Jechow, A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Mapping the brightness and color of urban to rural skyglow with all-sky photometry Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Artificial skyglow is a form of light pollution with wide ranging implications on the environment. The extent, intensity and color of skyglow depends on the artificial light sources and weather conditions. Skyglow can be best determined with ground based instruments. We mapped the skyglow of Berlin, Germany, for clear sky and overcast sky conditions inside and outside of the city limits. We conducted observations using a transect from the city center of Berlin towards a rural place more than 58 km south of Berlin using all-sky photometry with a calibrated commercial digital camera and a fisheye lens. From the multispectral imaging data, we processed luminance and correlated color temperature maps. We extracted the night sky brightness and correlated color temperature at zenith, as well as horizontal and scalar illuminance simultaneously. We calculated cloud amplification factors at each site and investigated the changes of brightness and color with distance, particularly showing differences inside and outside of the city limits. We found high values for illuminance above full moon light levels and amplification factors as high as 25 in the city center and a gradient towards the city limit and outside of the city limit. We further observed that clouds decrease the correlated color temperature in almost all cases. We discuss advantages and weaknesses of our method, compare the results with modeled night sky brightness data and provide recommendations for future work.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2895
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Author Lee, S.-I.; Kinoshita, S.; Noguchi, A.; Eto, T.; Ohashi, M.; Nishimura, Y.; Maeda, K.; Motomura, Y.; Awata, Y.; Higuchi, S.
Title Melatonin suppression during a simulated night shift in medium intensity light is increased by 10-minute breaks in dim light and decreased by 10-minute breaks in bright light Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Human Health; Humans; intermittent light at night exposure; light adaptation; melatonin suppression; night shift work; performance; short duration; subjective sleepiness
Abstract Exposure to light at night results in disruption of endogenous circadian rhythmicity and/or suppression of pineal melatonin, which can consequently lead to acute or chronic adverse health problems. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to very dim light or very bright light for a short duration influences melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness, and performance during exposure to constant moderately bright light. Twenty-four healthy male university students were divided into two experimental groups: Half of them (mean age: 20.0 +/- 0.9 years) participated in an experiment for short-duration (10 min) light conditions of medium intensity light (430 lx, medium breaks) vs. very dim light (< 1 lx, dim breaks) and the other half (mean age: 21.3 +/- 2.5 years) participated in an experiment for short-duration light conditions of medium intensity light (430 lx, medium breaks) vs. very bright light (4700 lx, bright breaks). Each simulated night shift consisting of 5 sets (each including 50-minute night work and 10-minute break) was performed from 01:00 to 06:00 h. The subjects were exposed to medium intensity light (550 lx) during the night work. Each 10-minute break was conducted every hour from 02:00 to 06:00 h. Salivary melatonin concentrations were measured, subjective sleepiness was assessed, the psychomotor vigilance task was performed at hourly intervals from 21:00 h until the end of the experiment. Compared to melatonin suppression between 04:00 and 06:00 h in the condition of medium breaks, the condition of dim breaks significantly promoted melatonin suppression and the condition of bright breaks significantly diminished melatonin suppression. However, there was no remarkable effect of either dim breaks or bright breaks on subjective sleepiness and performance of the psychomotor vigilance task. Our findings suggest that periodic exposure to light for short durations during exposure to a constant light environment affects the sensitivity of pineal melatonin to constant light depending on the difference between light intensities in the two light conditions (i.e., short light exposure vs. constant light exposure). Also, our findings indicate that exposure to light of various intensities at night could be a factor influencing the light-induced melatonin suppression in real night work settings.
Address Department of Human Science, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32326827 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2894
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Author Yao, Q.; Wang, H.; Dai, Q.; Shi, F.
Title Quantification assessment of light pollution of façade lighting display in Shenzhen, China Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express
Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 14100
Keywords Lighting; Instrumentation
Abstract In this work, we investigated 39 façade lighting displays, all of which consisted of tri-chromatic light sources, namely blue-, green-, and red- light units, in Shenzhen, China. We extracted the spectral characteristics of the mean peak wavelength/full-width at half-maximum,and proposed universal spectral models. We further established the ‘chromaticity-performance’ relation to quantitatively assess the impact of light pollution on typical species based on corresponding action spectra. The findings provide a low-cost, fast and precise approach to assess light pollution of complicated light environment, and may help reduce energy waste and adverse environmental consequences associated with light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2893
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Author Kerbiriou, C.; Barré, K.; Mariton, L.; Pauwels, J.; Zissis, G.; Robert, A.; Le Viol, I.
Title Switching LPS to LED Streetlight May Dramatically Reduce Activity and Foraging of Bats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Diversity Abbreviated Journal Diversity
Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 165
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night is considered a major threat to biodiversity, especially for nocturnal species, as it reduces habitat availability, quality, and functionality. Since the recent evolution in light technologies in improving luminous efficacy, developed countries are experiencing a renewal of their lighting equipment that reaches its end-of-life, from conventional lighting technologies to light emitting diodes (LEDs). Despite potential cascading impacts of such a shift on nocturnal fauna, few studies have so far dealt with the impact of the renewal of street lighting by new technologies. Specifically, only one study, by Rowse et al.2016, examined the effects of switching from widely used low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps to LEDs, using bats as biological models. This study was based on a before-after-control-impact paired design (BACIP) at 12 pairs in the UK, each including one control and one experimental streetlight. If Rowse et al. 2016 showed no effect of switching to LEDs streetlights on bat activity, the effects of respective changes in light intensity and spectrum were not disentangled when testing switch effects. Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of their data to include these covariates in statistical models with the aim of disentangling the relative effects of these light characteristics. Our re-analysis clearly indicates that the switches in spectrum and in intensity with replacement of LPS with LED lamps have significant additive and interactive effects, on bat activity. We also show that bat activity and buzz ratio decrease with increasing LED intensity while an opposite effect is observed with LPS lamps. Hence, the loss or the gain in bat activity when lamp types, i.e., spectrum, are switched strongly depends on the initial and new lamp intensities. Our results stress the need to consider simultaneously the effects of changes in the different lights characteristics when street lighting changes. Because switches from LPS to LED lamps can lead to an increase in light intensity, such technological changes may involve a reduction of bat activity in numerous cases, especially at high LED intensities. Since we are currently at an important crossroad in lighting management, we recommend to limit LED intensity and improve its spectral composition toward warmer colors to limit potential deleterious impacts on bat activity.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1424-2818 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2892
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