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Author Leonard, J.P.; Tewes, M.E.; Lombardi, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Campbell, T.A.
Title Effects of sun angle, lunar illumination, and diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots and bobcats in South Texas Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231732
Keywords Animals; moonlight
Abstract Sympatric ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in South Texas show substantial overlap in body size, food habits, and habitat use. Consequently, we explore whether temporal niche partitioning may explain ocelot and bobcat coexistence. We investigated the influence of sun angle, lunar illumination, and maximum diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots (n = 8) and bobcats (n = 6) using a combination of high-frequency GPS locations and bi-axial accelerometer data. We demonstrated that accelerometer data could be used to predict movement rates, providing a nearly continuous measure of animal activity and supplementing GPS locations. Ocelots showed a strong nocturnal activity pattern with the highest movement rates at night whereas bobcats showed a crepuscular activity pattern with the highest movement rates occurring around sunrise and sunset. Although bobcat activity levels were lower during the day, bobcat diurnal activity was higher than ocelot diurnal activity. During warmer months, bobcats were more active on nights with high levels of lunar illumination. In contrast, ocelots showed the highest nocturnal activity levels during periods of low lunar illumination. Ocelots showed reduced diurnal activity on hotter days. Our results indicate that ocelot and bobcat coexistence in South Texas can be partially explained by temporal niche partitioning, although both felids showed periods of overlapping activity during nocturnal and crepuscular periods.
Address East Foundation, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32324759 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2891
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Author Yuan, X.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Q.
Title Filtering the NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Improved Detection of Settlements in Africa Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 24 Pages 3002
Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation
Abstract Observing and understanding changes in Africa is a hotspot in global ecological environmental research since the early 1970s. As possible causes of environmental degradation, frequent droughts and human activities attracted wide attention. Remote sensing of nighttime light provides an effective way to map human activities and assess their intensity. To identify settlements more effectively, this study focused on nighttime light in the northern Equatorial Africa and Sahel settlements to propose a new method, namely, the patches filtering method (PFM) to identify nighttime lights related to settlements from the National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) monthly nighttime light data by separating signal components induced by biomass burning, thereby generating a new annual image in 2016. The results show that PFM is useful for improving the quality of NPP-VIIRS monthly nighttime light data. Settlement lights were effectively separated from biomass burning lights, in addition to capturing the seasonality of biomass burning. We show that the new 2016 nighttime light image can very effectively identify even small settlements, notwithstanding their fragmentation and unstable power supply. We compared the image with earlier NPP-VIIRS annual nighttime light data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI) for 2016 and the Sentinel-2 prototype Land Cover 20 m 2016 map of Africa released by the European Space Agency (ESA-S2-AFRICA-LC20). We found that the new annual nighttime light data performed best among the three datasets in capturing settlements, with a high recognition rate of 61.8%, and absolute superiority for settlements of 2.5 square kilometers or less. This shows that the method separates biomass burning signals very effectively, while retaining the relatively stable, although dim, lights of small settlements. The new 2016 annual image demonstrates good performance in identifying human settlements in sparsely populated areas toward a better understanding of human activities.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2890
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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M.
Title Spatial scaling of stable night lights Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 115 Issue 2 Pages 269-280
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract City size distributions, defined on the basis of population, are often described by power laws. Zipf's Law states that the exponent of the power law for rank-size distributions of cities is near −1. Verification of power law scaling for city size distributions at continental and global scales is complicated by small sample sizes, inappropriate estimation techniques, inconsistent definitions of urban extent and variations in the accuracy and spatial resolution of census administrative units. We attempt to circumvent some of these complications by using a continuous spatial proxy for anthropogenic development and treat it as a spatial complement to population distribution. We quantify the linearity and exponent of the rank-size distribution of spatially contiguous patches of stable night light over a range of brightnesses corresponding to different intensities of development. Temporally stable night lights, as measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Line Scanner (DMSP-OLS), provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. Brightness and spatial extent of emitted light are correlated to population density (Sutton et al., 2001), built area density (Elvidge et al., 2007c) and economic activity (Doll et al., 2006, Henderson et al., 2009) at global scales and within specific countries. Using a variable brightness threshold to derive spatial extent of developed land area eliminates the complication of administrative definitions of urban extent and makes it possible to test Zipf's Law in the spatial dimension for a wide range of anthropogenic development. Higher brightness thresholds generally correspond to more intense development while lower thresholds extend the lighted area to include smaller settlements and less intensively developed peri-urban and agricultural areas. Using both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to estimate power law linearity and exponent of the resulting rank-size distributions across a range of upper tail cutoffs, we consistently find statistically significant exponents in the range −0.95 to −1.11 with an abrupt transition to very large, extensively connected, spatial networks of development near the low light detection limit of the sensor. This range of exponents and transition are observed at both continental and global scales. The results suggest that Zipf's Law also holds for spatial extent of anthropogenic development across a range of intensities at both continental and global scales. The implication is that the dynamics of urban growth and development may be represented as spatial phase transitions when the spatial extent and intensity of development are treated as continuous variables rather than discrete entities.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2889
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Author Ludtke, L.E.
Title Sleep, disruption and the ‘nightmare of total illumination’ in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century dystopian fiction Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Interface Focus Abbreviated Journal Interface Focus.
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 20190130
Keywords Literature; Society; History
Abstract This article addresses the charge that the introduction of the electric light in the late nineteenth century increased disruptions to the human body's biological processes and interfered with the oscillating sleeping–waking cycle. By considering the nineteenth century research into the factors that motivate and disrupt sleep in concert with contemporary discussions of the physiology of street lighting, this article exposes how social and political forces shaped the impact of artificial light on sleep and, more perniciously, on bodily autonomy. As a close reading of artificial light in three influential dystopian novels building on these historical contexts demonstrates, dystopian fiction challenges the commonplace assumption that the advent of the electric light, or of widespread street lighting in public urban spaces, posed an immediate or inherent threat to sleep. Beginning with H. G. Wells's The Sleeper Awakes (1899), in which the eponymous sleeper emerges from a cataleptic trance into a future in which electric light and power are used to control the populace, representations of artificial light in early dystopian fiction of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries depict a nightmare of total illumination in which the state exerted its control over the individual. In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), constant artificial illumination plays a vital role in the chemical and behavioural conditioning undergone by individuals in a post-Fordian world. George Orwell intensifies this relationship between light and individual autonomy in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), where access to electric current (and thus light) is limited at certain times of the day, brownouts and electrical rationing occur intermittently, and total illumination is used to torture and reprogram individuals believed to have betrayed Big Brother.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2042-8898 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2888
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Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231140
Keywords Animals
Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2887
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