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Author Gatford, K.L.; Kennaway, D.J.; Liu, H.; Kleemann, D.O.; Kuchel, T.R.; Varcoe, T.J.
Title Simulated shift work disrupts maternal circadian rhythms and metabolism, and increases gestation length in sheep Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 597 Issue 7 Pages 1889-1904
Keywords Animals; *Circadian Rhythm; Female; Fetal Development; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Animal/physiology; Pregnancy, Multiple; Sheep/*physiology; *Shift Work Schedule; Sleep/*physiology; *circadian rhythms; *fetus; *maternal; *pregnancy; *sheep; *shift work
Abstract KEY POINTS: Shift work impairs metabolic health, although its effects during pregnancy are not well understood We evaluated the effects of a simulated shift work protocol for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy on maternal and pregnancy outcomes in sheep. Simulated shift work changed the timing of activity, disrupted hormonal and cellular rhythms, and impaired maternal glucose tolerance during early pregnancy. Gestation length was increased in twin pregnancies, whereas singleton lambs were lighter at a given gestational age if mothers were subjected to shift work conditions in the first one-third of pregnancy. Exposure to rotating night and day shifts, even if only in early pregnancy, may adversely affect maternal metabolic and pregnancy outcomes. ABSTRACT: Shift workers are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity; however, the impact during pregnancy on maternal metabolism is unknown. Using a large animal model, we assessed the impact of simulated shift work (SSW) exposure during pregnancy on maternal circadian rhythms, glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcomes. Following mating, ewes were randomly allocated to a control photoperiod (CON 12 h light, 12 h dark) or to SSW, where the timing of light exposure and food presentation was reversed twice each week for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy. Maternal behaviour followed SSW cycles with increased activity during light exposure and feeding. Melatonin rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the photoperiod shift, whereas peripheral circadian rhythms were arrhythmic. SSW impaired glucose tolerance (+29%, P = 0.019) and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (+32%, P = 0.018) in ewes with a singleton fetus in early but not late gestation. SSW exposure did not alter rates of miscarriage or stillbirth, although it extended gestation length in twin pregnancies (+2.4 days, P = 0.032). Relative to gestational age, birth weight was lower in singleton progeny of SSW than CON ewes (-476 g, P = 0.016). These results have implications for the large number of women currently engaged in shift work, and further studies are required to determine progeny health impacts.
Address Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30671970; PMCID:PMC6441904 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3136
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Author Gatford, K.L.; Kennaway, D.J.; Liu, H.; Schultz, C.G.; Wooldridge, A.L.; Kuchel, T.R.; Varcoe, T.J.
Title Simulated shift work during pregnancy does not impair progeny metabolic outcomes in sheep Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals; developmental programming; maternal; metabolism; progeny; sheep; shift work
Abstract KEY POINTS: Maternal shift work increases the risk of pregnancy complications, although its effects on progeny health after birth were not clear. We evaluated the impact of a simulated shift work protocol for one third, two thirds, or all of pregnancy on metabolic health of sheep progeny. Simulated shift work had no effect on growth, body size, body composition or glucose tolerance in pre-pubertal or young adult progeny. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was reduced in adult female progeny and insulin sensitivity was increased in adult female singleton progeny. The results of this study does not support the hypothesis that maternal shift work exposure impairs metabolic health of progeny in altricial species ABSTRACT: Disrupted maternal circadian rhythms, such as those experienced during shift work, are associated with impaired progeny metabolism in rodents. The effects of disrupted maternal circadian rhythms on progeny metabolism have not been assessed in altricial, non-litter bearing species. We therefore assessed postnatal growth from birth to adulthood, and body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in pre-pubertal and young adult progeny of sheep exposed to control conditions (CON: 10 males, 10 females) or to a simulated shift work (SSW) protocol for the first 1/3 (SSW0-7: 11 males, 9 females), the first 2/3 (SSW0-14: 8 males, 11 females), or all (SSW0-21: 8 males, 13 females) of pregnancy. Progeny growth did not differ between maternal treatments. In pre-pubertal progeny (12-14 weeks of age), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity did not differ between maternal treatments. Similarly, in young adult progeny (12-14 months of age), food intake, adiposity and glucose tolerance did not differ between maternal treatments. At this age, however, insulin secretion in response to a glucose bolus was 30% lower in female progeny in the combined SSW groups compared to control females (P = 0.031), and insulin sensitivity of SSW0-21 singleton females was 236% that of CON singleton female progeny (P = 0.025). At least in this model, maternal SSW does not impair progeny metabolic health, with some evidence of greater insulin action in female young adult progeny. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Basil Hetzel Research Institute for Translational Health Research, Adelaide, South Australia, 5011, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32918750 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3135
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.
Title The Dimming of Lights in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 17 Pages 2851
Keywords Remote Sensing; VIIRS; Day-night band (DNB); Nighttime lights; COVID-19; Pandemic; VIIRS-DNB
Abstract A satellite survey of the cumulative radiant emissions from electric lighting across China reveals a large radiance decline in lighting from December 2019 to February 2020—the peak of the lockdown established to suppress the spread of COVID-19 infections. To illustrate the changes, an analysis was also conducted on a reference set from a year prior to the pandemic. In the reference period, the majority (62%) of China’s population lived in administrative units that became brighter in March 2019 relative to December 2018. The situation reversed in February 2020, when 82% of the population lived in administrative units where lighting dimmed as a result of the pandemic. The dimming has also been demonstrated with difference images for the reference and pandemic image pairs, scattergrams, and a nightly temporal profile. The results indicate that it should be feasible to monitor declines and recovery in economic activity levels using nighttime lighting as a proxy.
Address Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA; celvidge(at)mines.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3134
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Nagare, R.; Price, L.L.A.
Title Non-visual effects of light: How to use light to promote circadian entrainment and elicit alertness Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 38-62
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract In addition to stimulating the visual system, light incident on the retina stimulates other biological functions, also referred to as non-visual responses. Among the most notable biological functions are human circadian rhythms, which are bodily rhythms that, in constant darkness, oscillate with a period close to, but typically slightly longer than 24 hours. Twenty-four-hour light–dark patterns incident on the retina are the major synchroniser of circadian rhythms to the local time on Earth. Entrainment of circadian rhythms has been implicated in health and well-being. Light can also elicit an acute alerting effect on people, similar to a ‘cup of coffee.’ This review summarises the literature on how light affects entrainment and alertness and how it can be used to achieve these aims.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3133
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Author Ford, S.; Kidd, P.; Nashand, K.; Rietveld, A.
Title ARTIFICIAL LIGHT AND MOTH BIODIVERSITY: A COMPARISON OF MOTH DIVERSITY ACROSS DIFFERENT HABITATS ON LUNDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Lundy Field Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages 53-68
Keywords Animals; Lundy; Moths
Abstract Moths perform important roles within ecosystems. Behavioural responses to artificial light disrupt adaptive behaviours, causing population declines. Island populations can assess moth population attracted to artificial light, distinct from urbanisation. Here we present results from day counts of moth larvae and nocturnal Skinner light-traps from Lundy. Findings reveal a significant difference between moth population dynamics and species at differing locations.Overall, numbers of individuals and species caught with the UV-light trap were significantly greater than LED sources.These findings can be applied to potential artificial light changes on Lundy, as well as further changes throughout the United Kingdom
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3132
Permanent link to this record