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Author Nagai, N.; Ayaki, M.; Yanagawa, T.; Hattori, A.; Negishi, K.; Mori, T.; Nakamura, T.J.; Tsubota, K.
Title Suppression of Blue Light at Night Ameliorates Metabolic Abnormalities by Controlling Circadian Rhythms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Volume 60 Issue 12 Pages 3786-3793
Keywords Human Health; Animals
Abstract Purpose: Light-emitting diodes that emit high-intensity blue light are associated with blue-light hazard. Here, we report that blue light disturbs circadian rhythms by interfering with the clock gene in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and that suppression of blue light at night ameliorates metabolic abnormalities by controlling circadian rhythms. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-lux light for 30 minutes at Zeitgeber time 14 for light pulse with blue light or blue-light cut light to induce phase shift of circadian rhythms. Phase shift, clock gene expression in SCN, and metabolic parameters were analyzed. In the clinical study, healthy participants wore blue-light shield eyewear for 2 to 3 hours before bed. Anthropometric data analyses, laboratory tests, and sleep quality questionnaires were performed before and after the study. Results: In mice, phase shift induced with a blue-light cut light pulse was significantly shorter than that induced with a white light pulse. The phase of Per2 expression in the SCN was also delayed after a white light pulse. Moreover, blood glucose levels 48 hours after the white light pulse were higher than those after the blue-cut light pulse. Irs2 expression in the liver was decreased with white light but significantly recovered with the blue-cut light pulse. In a clinical study, after 1 month of wearing blue-light shield eyeglasses, there were improvements in fasting plasma glucose levels, insulin resistance, and sleep quality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that suppression of blue light at night effectively maintains circadian rhythms and metabolism.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0146-0404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31504080 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2665
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Author Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Mapping geographical concentrations of economic activities in Europe using light at night (LAN) satellite data Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 35 Issue 22 Pages 7706-7725
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Data on geographical concentrations of economic activities, such as manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail trade, financial services, etc., are important for identifying clusters of economic activities (EAs) and concentrations of forces behind them. However, such data are essentially sparse due to limited reporting by individual countries and administrative entities. For example, at present, Eurostat provides EA data for <50% of all regional subdivisions of the third tier of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS3). Measurements of light at night (LAN), as captured by satellite sensors, are likely to differ in intensity, depending on the source. As a result, LAN levels can become a marker for EAs; the present study attempts to verify this possibility. As the present analysis indicates, the inclusion of LAN intensities in multivariate models (in addition to standard economic and locational variables) helps to explain up to 88.8% of the EA variation, performing especially well for manufacturing, construction, and agriculture (the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2-adjusted) is in the range of 0.754–0.888). The study thus confirms the feasibility of using LAN satellite measurements for reconstructing geographical patterns of EAs, information that may be restricted or is unavailable due to sparse or incomplete reporting.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2664
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Author Chen, S.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, B.; Li, T.; Du, Y.; Yang, M.; Zhao, H.
Title Evaluation method and reduction measures for the flicker effect in road lighting using fixed Low Mounting Height Luminaires Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology Abbreviated Journal Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Volume 93 Issue Pages 103101
Keywords Lighting; Vision
Abstract Low Mounting Height Luminaires (LMHL) are used in many cities on viaducts, cross-sea and cross-river bridges due to their unique advantages. However, the flicker effect is an important factor that needs to be considered in road lighting using fixed LMHL. At present, there are not many researchers in the field of international lighting. Previous types of road lighting design were based on the method of the tunnel lighting flicker effect. At the same time, the flicker effect is mainly based on the subjective feelings of people but is not quantified. In this paper, the Flicker Index (FI) is calculated by measuring the parameters of streetlamps to evaluation flicker effect. Secondly, the suggestion to offset the flicker effect in CIE 88-2004 “Guide for the Lighting of Road Tunnels and Underpasses” is to limit the speed of the vehicle and adjust the road light spacing to avoid the flicker sensitive area on human eyes, while ignoring the essential problem of how the flicker effect is generated through the energy level of the stimulating optical signal. Two factors affecting the strength of the flicker effect are proposed: energy ratio and duty cycle. The duty cycle, in time, refers to the proportion of the strong and weak flashing signals during the period; in space, it refers to the proportional relationship between the length of the luminaire and the distance between the lamps, which is related to the running speed of the vehicle. It is consistent with the CIE recommendations for flicker. Thirdly, the essence of the flicker effect is the problem of the energy level of the stimulus signal. This study investigated the reduction in the brightness of the light source, hence reducing the energy of the visual stimulation signal to the human eye in order to judge the degree of fatigue in human vision. The experimental results show that the degree of fatigue in human vision decreases when the brightness of the experimental light source decreases. Therefore, the key to changing the flicker effect of LMHL is to reduce the contrast between the surface brightness of the luminaire and the brightness of the spatial background.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0886-7798 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2663
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Author Savarese, M.; Di Perri, M.C.
Title Excessive sleepiness in shift work disorder: a narrative review of the last 5 years Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep & Breathing = Schlaf & Atmung Abbreviated Journal Sleep Breath
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Review; Human Health; Alertness; Armodafinil; Insomnia; Performance; Shift work disorder; excessive sleepiness; Stimulants
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), also known as shift work disorder (SWD), is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness, associated with a recurring work schedule that overlaps the usual time designated for sleeping. PURPOSE: This article aims to provide a narrative review of the pharmacological trials conducted on SWD in the last 5 years, to better address safety and health issues inherent to this disorder. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed. All eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over RCTs with employees undertaking shift work (including night shifts) were considered, yielding three articles. RESULTS: All three studies showed the efficacy of armodafinil in improving subjective and objective sleepiness, clinical conditions, and global functioning regardless of shift duration. Both performance and driving simulator performance tests administered during the night shift bore better results following armodafinil administration than after placebo. However, armodafinil only reduced subjective disability in individuals working more than 9 h; furthermore, even after armodafinil, alertness was reduced but not normalized. CONCLUSION: These studies underscore the importance of preventing and/or minimizing disturbances due to shift work. This may be achieved through various strategies, such as the employer's commitment to adopt ergonomic criteria in shift design and to implement work-environment interventions like controlled bright light. Health personnel is of pivotal importance to detect potential factors of intolerance to shift work or early symptoms of SWD. Additional and improved studies are needed to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.
Address Center of Sleep Medicine, UOSD of Neurophysiopathology and Disorders of Movement, AOU G Martino, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98121, Messina, Italy. mdiperri@wesleyan.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1520-9512 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31471831 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2662
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Author Walbeek, T.J.; Harrison, E.M.; Soler, R.R.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Enhanced Circadian Entrainment in Mice and Its Utility under Human Shiftwork Schedules Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep
Volume 1 Issue 3 Pages 394-413
Keywords Animals
Abstract The circadian system is generally considered to be incapable of adjusting to rapid changes in sleep/work demands. In shiftworkers this leads to chronic circadian disruption and sleep loss, which together predict underperformance at work and negative health consequences. Two distinct experimental protocols have been proposed to increase circadian flexibility in rodents using dim light at night: rhythm bifurcation and T-cycle (i.e., day length) entrainment. Successful translation of such protocols to human shiftworkers could facilitate alignment of internal time with external demands. To assess entrainment flexibility following bifurcation and exposure to T-cycles, mice in Study 1 were repeatedly phase-shifted. Mice from experimental conditions rapidly phase-shifted their activity, while control mice showed expected transient misalignment. In Study 2 and 3, mice followed a several weeks-long intervention designed to model a modified DuPont or Continental shiftwork schedule, respectively. For both schedules, bifurcation and nocturnal dim lighting reduced circadian misalignment. Together, these studies demonstrate proof of concept that mammalian circadian systems can be rendered sufficiently flexible to adapt to multiple, rapidly changing shiftwork schedules. Flexible adaptation to exotic light-dark cycles likely relies on entrainment mechanisms that are distinct from traditional entrainment.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2661
Permanent link to this record