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Author Nadybal, S.M.; Collins, T.W.; Grineski, S.E.
Title Light pollution inequities in the continental United States: A distributive environmental justice analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environmental Research
Volume 189 Issue Pages in press
Keywords Planning; Society; Inequality
Abstract Excessive exposure to ambient light at night is a well-documented hazard to human health, yet analysts have not examined it from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective. We conducted the first EJ study of exposure to light pollution by testing for socially disparate patterns across the continental United States (US). We first calculated population-weighted mean exposures to examine whether ambient light pollution in the US differed between racial/ethnic groups. We then used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEEs) that adjust for geographic clustering to examine whether light pollution was distributed inequitably based on racial/ethnic composition and socioeconomic status across US neighborhoods (census tracts). Finally, we conducted a stratified analysis of metropolitan core, suburban, and small city–rural tracts to determine whether patterns of inequity varied based on urban-rural context. We found evidence of disparities in exposures to light pollution based on racial/ethnic minority and low-to-mid socioeconomic statuses. Americans of Asian, Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity had population-weighted mean exposures to light pollution in their neighborhoods that were approximately two times that of White Americans. GEEs indicated that neighborhoods composed of higher proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or renter-occupants experienced greater exposures to ambient light at night. Stratified analyses indicated that those patterns of inequity did not substantially vary based on urban-rural context. Findings have implications for understanding environmental influences on health disparities, raise concerns about the potential for a multiple environmental jeopardy situation, and highlight the need for policy actions to address light pollution.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3088
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Author Feng, Z.; Peng, J.; Wu, J.
Title Using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data and K–means method to identify urban–rural fringe of megacities Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Habitat International Abbreviated Journal Habitat International
Volume 103 Issue Pages 102227
Keywords Remote Sensing
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ISSN 0197-3975 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3087
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Author Xie, C.; Zhu, H.; Chen, S.; Wen, Y.; Jin, L.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Shen, Y.
Title Chronic retinal injury induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures as determined by microarray analyses of genome-wide expression patterns in mice Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology Abbreviated Journal J Photochem Photobiol B
Volume 210 Issue Pages 111977
Keywords Animals; Vision; Autophagy; Cct; Expression profile microarray; Genome-wide; Led; Retinal photoreceptor degeneration; Ubiquitin
Abstract Widely used white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) currently deliver higher levels of blue light than conventional domestic light sources. The high intensity of the blue component is the main source of concern regarding possible health risks of LED to chronic light toxicity to the retina. Therefore, we analyzed retinal injury and genome-wide changes in gene expression induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) in a mouse model. Balb/c mice (10 weeks old) were exposed to LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K, at different illuminance levels (250, 500, 1000, and 3000 lx) and for different exposure times (7, 14, and 28 days). Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that exposure to 7378 K light at 250 lx for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of outer nuclear layer (ONL) nuclei, whereas 2954 K light at <3000 lx led to only a mild reduction in the number of ONL nuclei. In addition, 5624 and 7378 K light at 3000 lx resulted in a significant increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei, which was not found at an illuminance of 1000 lx. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that, compared to a control group, there were 121 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 458 downregulated DEGs found in the 7378 K group, and 59 upregulated and only 4 downregulated DEGs in the 2954 K group. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that the DEGs were involved in 341 GO terms and 16 related pathways for the 7378 K group and in 12 GO terms and 7 related pathways for the 2954 K group. Signal pathways related to ubiquitin potentially played an important role in light-induced retinal degeneration. Furthermore, retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated downregulation of ubiquitin and autophagy function caused by 7378 K light. Taken together, these results indicate that retinal injury in the mice induced by white LED light occurred in a CCT-dependent manner, and that light with a higher CCT was more likely to reduce ONL nuclei; however, the apoptosis pathway may not be the only mechanism involved. Based on genome-wide expression analyses and retinal IHC, the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis signal pathway may have participated in the induction retinal degeneration.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: idrshen@zju.edu.com
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32738749 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3086
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Author Prabhat, A.; Malik, I.; Jha, N.A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V.
Title Developmental effects of constant light on circadian behaviour and gene expressions in zebra finches: Insights into mechanisms of metabolic adaptation to aperiodic environment in diurnal animals Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Volume in press Issue Pages 111995
Keywords Animals
Abstract A most crucial feature of biological adaptation is the maintenance of a close temporal relationship of behaviour and physiology with prevailing 24-h light-dark environment, which is rapidly changing with increasing nighttime illumination. This study investigated developmental effects of the loss of night on circadian behaviour, metabolism and gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches born and raised under LL, with controls on 12 L:12D. Birds under LD were entrained, and showed normal body mass and a significant 24-h rhythm in both activity-rest pattern and mRNA expression of candidate genes that we measured. But, under LL, birds gained weight and accumulated lipid in the liver. Intriguingly, at the end of the experiment, the majority (4/5th) of birds under LL were rhythmic in activity despite arrhythmic expression in the hypothalamus of c-Fos (neuronal activity), Rhodopsin and Mel1-a genes (light perception), and clock genes (Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-erb β). In peripheral tissues, LL induced variable clock gene expressions. Whereas 24-h mRNA rhythm was abolished for Bmal1 in both liver and gut, it persisted for Per2 and Rev-erb β in liver, and for Per2 in gut. Further, we found under LL, the loss of 24-h rhythm in hepatic expression of Fasn and Cd36/Fat (biosynthesis and its uptake), and gut expression of Sglt1, Glut5, Cd36 and Pept1 (nutrient absorption) genes. As compared to LD, baseline mRNA levels of Fasn and Cd36 genes were attenuated under LL. Among major transporter genes, Sglt1 (glucose) and Cd36 (fat) genes were arrhythmic, while Glut5 (glucose) and Pept1 (protein) genes were rhythmic but with phase differences under LL, compared to LD. These results demonstrate dissociation of circadian behaviour from clock gene rhythms, and provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms at different levels (behaviour and physiology) that diurnal animals might employ in order to adapt to an emerging overly illuminated-night urban environment.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3085
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Author Dickerson, A.L.; Hall, M.L.; Jones, T.M.
Title The effect of variation in moonlight on nocturnal song of a diurnal bird species Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 74 Issue 9 Pages in press
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract The lunar cycle is known to affect the behaviour of strictly nocturnal species, but for diurnal species that are periodically active during the night, this has been less investigated. Nocturnal bird song is relatively common in diurnal species, yet research on this behaviour accounts for little of the research on avian vocalisations. This is surprising given that diurnal species are adapted for bright environments and therefore may be particularly sensitive to change in the lunar cycles. We used automated bioacoustic recorders and automatic song detection software to measure nocturnal song rate in a diurnal bird where both sexes sing, the willie wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys). We deployed recorders at eight locations across four naturally dark sites resulting in 457 h of nocturnal audio. We confirmed anecdotal evidence suggesting that willie wagtails are prolific nocturnal singers during the breeding season and demonstrate that while both male and females sing during the day, nocturnal song is largely sung by males. Moreover, we show that nocturnal song increased with lunar illumination, contrasting with previous research on other diurnal species that sing at night. Our data allow us to hypothesise possible functions for nocturnal song in this species, such as territory defence or mate attraction.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3084
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