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Author Woods, H. C., & Scott, H.
Title Merging the Biological and Cognitive Processes of Sleep and Screens Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Current Sleep Medicine Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 150-155
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Purpose of Review

Screens are a permanent feature of life today and we have reached an interesting juncture with different research agendas investigating the biological and cognitive aspects of screen use separately. This review argues that it is timely and indeed essential that we bring together these research areas to fully understand both positive and negative aspects of screen use.

Recent Findings

More recent work is starting to take a more cohesive approach to understanding how device use pre-bedtime can impact our sleep by including both light and content in their experimental protocols which is a welcome development leading to a more nuanced understanding of both biological and cognitive processes.

Summary

We call for an open and collaborative approach to gain momentum in this direction of acknowledging both biological and cognitive factors enabling us to understand the relative impacts of both whilst using screens with regard to both light and content.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2640
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Author Lopez-Ruiz, H., Nezamuddin, N., Al Hassan, R., & Muhsen, A.
Title Estimating Freight Transport Activity Using Nighttime Lights Satellite Data in China, India and Saudi Arabia Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication EconPapers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract This paper focuses on the methodology for estimating total freight transport activity (FTA) for three countries — China, India and Saudi Arabia — with the objective of building on current state-of-the-art transportation modeling in three key areas: Studying the relationship between nighttime lights (NTL) and FTA allows for an estimation of full transportation datasets for countries where only a few observation points exist or where data is unavailable. Establishing the foundation for future work on how to use this approach in transport flow estimation (origin-destination matrices). Determining whether this approach can be used globally, given the coverage of the satellite data used. The paper uses the KAPSARC Transport Analysis Framework (KTAF), which estimates transport activity from freely available global data sources, satellite images and NTL. It is a tool for estimating freight transport activity that can be used in models to measure the impact of an accelerated transport policy planning approach. The methodology offers a solution to inadequate data access and allows for scenario building in policy planning for transportation. This approach allows for quick estimation of the effects of policy measures and economic changes on transportation activities at a global level. The paper also includes a detailed guide on how to replicate the methodology used in this analysis.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2639
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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Improved scattering formula for calculations of artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
Year 1984 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 104 Issue Pages 196-197
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In recent years there has been increased interest in measuring the artificial illumination produced in the night sky cities of various sizes at a range of distances from the observer. Examples of such measurements include the work of Treanor on three Italian cities, that of Walker on the cities of various sized in California, and a study by Berry of light pollution in Southern Ontario. There seem to have been few attempts to provide theoretical interpretations of these measurements other than that contained in the paper by Treanor. He developed a simple empirical formula (his equation (6)) for the zenith brigthness due to a distant city as a function of the distance of the observer from the city. Treanor's formula was used by Berry, with a modification which we mention later.

Treanor based his formula on a very ingenious method of estimating the contribution to the zenith brightness of aerosol scattering between the city, treated as a point source, and an element of the atmosphere in the direction of the observer's zenith. Readers are referred to Treanor's paper for details of his derivation. We give here a simple extension of his work which leads to a scattering formula valid under less restrictive assumptions.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2638
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Author Bauhr, M. & Carlitz, R.
Title TRANSPARENCY AND THE QUALITY OF LOCAL PUBLIC SERVICE PROVISION Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication QOG THE QUALITY OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTE Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing
Abstract Transparency has been widely promoted as a tool for improving public service

delivery; however, empirical evidence is inconclusive. We suggest that the effects of transparency on service provision are contingent on the nature of the service. Specifically, transparency is more likely to improve the quality of service provision when street-level discretion is high, since discretion increases information asymmetries, and, in the absence of transparency, allows officials to target public services in suboptimal ways. Using finely grained data from the Vietnam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index between 2011–2017, we show that communes that experience increases in transparency also experience improved quality of education and health (services characterized by greater discretion), while the quality of infrastructure

provision (characterized by less discretion) bears no relation to increased transparency. The findings help us understand when transparency can improve service provision, as well the effects of transparency reforms in non-democratic settings.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2637
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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2636
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