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Author Becker, D.J.; Singh, D.; Pan, Q.; Montoure, J.D.; Talbott, K.M.; Wanamaker, S.M.; Ketterson, E.D.
Title Artificial light at night amplifies seasonal relapse of haemosporidian parasites in a widespread songbird Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 287 Issue 1935 Pages 20201831
Keywords *Animal Migration; Animals; Breeding; Parasitemia; Parasites; Recurrence; Seasons; Songbirds/*parasitology; *Junco hyemalis; *avian malaria; *ecoimmunology; *generalized additive models; *photoperiod; *urbanization
Abstract Urban habitats can shape interactions between hosts and parasites by altering not only exposure rates but also within-host processes. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is common in urban environments, and chronic exposure can impair host immunity in ways that may increase infection. However, studies of causal links between this stressor, immunity, and infection dynamics are rare, particularly in migratory animals. Here, we experimentally tested how ALAN affects cellular immunity and haemosporidian parasite intensity across the annual cycle of migrant and resident subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We monitored an experimental group exposed to light at night and a control group under natural light/dark cycles as they passed through short days simulating early spring to longer days simulating the breeding season, followed by autumn migration. Using generalized additive mixed models, we show that ALAN increased inflammation, and leucocyte counts were greatest in early spring and autumn. At the start of the experiment, few birds had active infections based on microscopy, but PCR revealed many birds had chronic infections. ALAN increased parasitaemia across the annual cycle, with strong peaks in spring and autumn that were largely absent in control birds. As birds were kept in indoor aviaries to prevent vector exposure, this increased parasitaemia indicates relapse of chronic infection during costly life-history stages (i.e. reproduction). Although the immunological and parasitological time series were in phase for control birds, cross-correlation analyses also revealed ALAN desynchronized leucocyte profiles and parasitaemia, which could suggest a general exaggerated inflammatory response. Our study shows how a common anthropogenic influence can shape within-host processes to affect infection dynamics.
Address Environmental Resilience Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; danbeck ( at ) iu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32962545; PMCID:PMC7542808 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3368
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Author Chen, R.; Weitzner, A.S.; McKennon, L.A.; Fonken, L.K.
Title Light at night during development in mice has modest effects on adulthood behavior and neuroimmune activation Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume Issue Pages 113171
Keywords Animals; adolescence; circadian; hippocampus; light at night; mood; neuroinflammation
Abstract Exposure to light at night (LAN) can disrupt the circadian system, thereby altering neuroimmune reactivity and related behavior. Increased exposure to LAN affects people of all ages – and could have particularly detrimental effects during early-life and adolescence. Despite this, most research on the behavioral and physiological effects of LAN has been conducted in adult animals. Here we evaluated the effects of dim LAN during critical developmental windows on adulthood neuroimmune function and affective/sickness behaviors. Male and female C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to dim LAN [12:12 light (150 lux)/dim (15 lux) cycle] during early life (PND10-24) or adolescence (PND30-44) [control: 12:12 light (150 lux)/dark (0 lux) cycle]. Behaviors were assessed during juvenile (PND42-44) and adult (PND60) periods. Contrary to our hypothesis, juvenile mice that were exposed to dim LAN did not exhibit changes in anxiety- or depressive-like behaviors. By adulthood, adolescent LAN-exposed female mice showed a modest anxiety-like phenotype in one behavioral task but not another. Adolescent LAN exposure also induced depressive-like behavior in a forced swim task in adulthood in both male and female mice. Additionally, developmental LAN exacerbated the hippocampal cytokine response (IL-1beta) following peripheral LPS in female, but not male mice. These results suggest female mice may be more susceptible to developmental LAN than male mice: LAN female mice had a modest anxiety-like phenotype in adulthood, and upon LPS challenge, higher hippocampal IL-1beta expression. Taken together, developmental LAN exposure in mice promotes a modest increase in susceptibility to anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms.
Address Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address: laura.fonken@austin.utexas.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33577883 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3367
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Author Kumar, S.; Singh, V. K.; Nath, P.; PC, J.
Title An overview of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiations as risk to pollinators and pollination Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Applied and Natural Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 675-681
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Review
Abstract Pollinators play a key functional role in most terrestrial ecosystems and provide important ecosystem service to maintain wild plant communities and agricultural productivity. The decline in pollinators has been related to anthropogenic disturbances such as habitat loss, alterations in land use, and climate change. The surge in mobile telephony has led to a marked increase in electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere, which may affect pollinator and pollination. Several laboratory studies have reported negative effects of electromagnetic radiation on reproduction, development, and navigation in insects. The abundance of insects such as the beetle, wasp, and hoverfly, decreased with electromagnetic radiation(EMR), whereas the abundance of underground-nesting wild bees and bee fly unexpectedly increased with EMR. Potential risks for pollinators and biodiversity are anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (AREMR) (light, radiofrequency). Artificial light at night (ALAN) can alter the function and abundance of pollinator. Evidence of impacts of AREMR is not adequate due to a lack of high quality, field-realistic studies. Whether pollinators experiencing a threat of ALAN or AREMR, while major knowledge gap exists. In this review, the effects of EMR on wild pollinator groups such as wild bees, hoverflies, bee flies, beetles, butterflies, and wasps etc. have been highlighted. Researchers are also recommended for further study on the effects of EMR on insects. This study will be significant to conserve pollinators and other important insects.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3366
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Author Iloanugo, U.; Dutta, I.; Haque, M. E.
Title Do Amnesty Policies Reduce Conict? Evidence from the Niger-Delta Amnesty Program Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Economics Discussion Paper Series Abbreviated Journal EDP
Volume Issue 2011 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract We examine the effect of the Niger-Delta Amnesty Program on oil related conflict in Nigeria. The policy enacted in August 2009 made concessions to rebel groups in the oil producing region in exchange for peace. Using a difference-in-difference strategy we compare conflict in Local Government Areas with and without oil fields in the Niger-Delta region. We find robust evidence that amnesty policy reduced the rebel and militia activities significantly. However, the reduction of conflict was not long lasting. We also find evidence of a peace dividend in terms of increase in economic activities — as measured through night time luminosity data — in Niger-Delta LGAs with oil fields after the policy. We explain our results through a simple analytical model.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3365
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Author Tyler, N.; Stokkan, K.-A.; Hogg, C.; Nellemann, C.; Vistnes, A.-I.; Jeffery, G.
Title Ultraviolet vision and avoidance of power lines in birds and mammals Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 630-631
Keywords Animals; Birds/*physiology; *Conservation of Natural Resources; Mammals/*physiology; *Ultraviolet Rays; *Visual Perception
Abstract The avoidance by mammals and ground-nesting birds of habitat up to several kilometers from high-voltage power lines is a major consequence of infrastructure development in remote areas, but the behavior is perplexing because suspended cables are neither an impenetrable physical barrier nor associated with human traffic (e.g., Vistnes & Nellemann 2008; Pruett et al. 2009; Degteva & Nellemann 2013). Moreover, avoidance may persist >3 decades after construction (Nellemann et al. 2003; Vistnes et al. 2004), suggesting behavioral reinforcement. Integration of new information on visual function with the characteristics of power line function provides compelling evidence that avoidance may be linked with the ability of animals to detect ultraviolet light (UV).
Address Centre for Saami Studies, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24621320; PMCID:PMC4232876 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3364
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