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Author Müller-Crepon, C. url  openurl
  Title Indirect Rule, Cash Crop Production, and Development in Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Colonial governance in Africa varied considerably in its extent of indirect rule

through precolonial institutions. Assessing the developmental consequences

of indirect rule, this paper argues that it strengthened populations’ bargaining

power and increased public service provision in return for taxation of agricultural produce, in particular cash crops. To test this argument, I exploit variation in the indirectness of colonial rule: whereas British indirect rule increased in the centralization of precolonial institutions, the French implemented more uniform direct rule. I furthermore measure public service provision with georeferenced education outcomes of individuals born and raised under colonial rule and use soils’ suitability for cash crop production as an exogenous proxy for real production. Supporting the theoretical claim, the effect of cash crop suitability on primary education increases with precolonial centralization in former British colonies, but not in French ones. Comparisons of education rates in neighboring ethnic groups with different levels of centralization and ethnic groups cut by British-French boundaries reaffirm this result. Contemporary development outcomes show patterns consistent with persistent effects

of indirect rule in cash crop producing areas. The findings underscore the joint

importance of political institutions and resource endowments in determining

local development.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2956  
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Author Fouchard, M., Hébrard, J.-P., Geoffroy, D., & Ponel, P. url  openurl
  Title Contribution à la connaissance des communautés d'Hétérocères et de Coléoptères crépusculaires et nocturnes de l’île de Porquerolles (archipel des îles d'Hyères, département du Var) en lien avec les milieux Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific reports of the Port-Cros national park Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue Pages 127-162  
  Keywords Ecology  
  Abstract À l’initiative de la municipalité d’Hyères-les-Palmiers et du Parc national de Port-Cros, une étude sur la qualité de la nuit à Porquerolles a été lancée par l’Association Nationale pour la Protection du Ciel et de l’Environnement Nocturnes (ANPCEN) en 2016. L’objectif de cette étude est de tendre vers un éclairage efcace tout en limitant son impact sur l’environnement. La présente étude entre dans le cadre de ce projet. Son objectif est d’améliorer les connaissances sur les Hétérocères et les Coléoptères crépusculaires et nocturnes de Porquerolles et d’analyser les résultats par rapport à la problématique de la pollution lumineuse. Trois points de relevé (jardin Emmanuel Lopez, bassins de lagunage, fort de la Repentance), représentatifs de différents milieux et de différentes expositions à la pollution lumineuse ont été étudiés lors de 4 sessions en 2016/2017. La qualité de la nuit selon l’étude de l’ANPCEN est moins bonne au jardin Emmanuel Lopez par rapport au bassin de lagunage et au fort de la Repentance, ce dernier étant le point ayant la meilleure qualité de nuit. Au total, 93 espèces de Coléoptères et 64 espèces d’Hétérocères ont été observées sur l’île de Porquerolles. Pour les Hétérocères, un gradient de richesse spécique est observé du point le plus exposé à la pollution lumineuse à celui qui est le moins exposé, avec 21 espèces pour le jardin Emmanuel Lopez (point n°1), 35 pour le bassin de lagunage (point n°2) et 57 pour le fort de la Repentance (point n°3). Pour les Coléoptères en revanche, le point n°1 est aussi riche que le n° 3 avec 56 espèces pour chacun alors que le point n°2 ne comporte que 38 espèces. Une fois les pistes d’actions proposées par l’ANPCEN pour la réduction des pollutions mises en place sur l’île de Porquerolles, il sera intéressant de réaliser — 128 —une nouvelle campagne d’inventaires selon le même protocole an d’identier une éventuelle évolution de la diversité et de l’abondance en Hétérocères et en Coléoptères.  
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  Language French Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2955  
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Author Khanduri, M., & Saxena, A. url  openurl
  Title Ecological light pollution: Consequences for the aquatic ecosystem Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Light Pollution is a growing concern for man and the environment. As awareness of the issue grows, various studies reveal its hitherto unnoticed effects on various organisms and ecological processes. The aquatic ecosystem has not been untouched by its influence either, and although much research is still required in the field, an attempt has been made to compile studies and reviews on the effects of Ecological Light Pollution on the world under water. Light has both direct and indirect influences on aquatic systems, and some possible consequences on various aspects of aquatic ecology have been extrapolated from existing studies. It has been attempted to bring attention to some implications that Ecological Light Pollution may have for the aquatic communities, and the aspects that require further investigation for a better understanding of the consequences of increased artificial illumination for entire aquatic ecosystems.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2954  
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Author Nam, K. H., Kim, C. H., & Nam, K. H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Research on the Improvement of Visibility Using Low Deck Lighting in Bad Weather Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 186-193  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract We investigate a fog-detection CCT control system using low deck lighting as a solution to the forward visibility of pole-type street lamps employed on existing roads. The lighting standards were met with a light source that has less compared with those of pole-type street lamps. The results show that the transmission rate was increased by changing the color temperature by automatically recognizing fog in bad weather and minimizing the phenomenon of lighting. In addition, it was allowed to create a safer and more comfortable driving environment for drivers owing to flicker or light pollution of existing pole-type street lamps. As a result, if lighting is used at a lower level than pole-type street lamps, the accident rate caused by securing the driver's forward visibility can be reduced sharply and existing problems can be resolved.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2953  
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Author Chu, L., Oloo, F., Sudmanns, M., Tiede, D., Hölbling, D.,Blaschke, T., & Teleoaca, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring long-term shoreline dynamics and human activities in the Hangzhou Bay, China, combining daytime and nighttime EO data Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Big Earth Data Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Shorelines are vulnerable to anthropogenic activities including urbanization, land reclamation and sediment loading. Shoreline changes may be a reflection of the degradation of coastal ecosystems because of human activities. Understanding the shoreline dynamics is, therefore, a topic of global concern. Earth observation data, such as multi-temporal satellite images, are an important resource for assessing changes in coastal ecosystems. In this research, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE) to monitor and map historical shoreline dynamics in the Hangzhou Bay in China where the Qiantang River flows into the East China Sea. Specifically, we aimed to capture and quantify both the spatial and temporal shoreline changes and to assess the link between anthropogenic activities and shoreline changes on the integrity of this coastal area. We implemented a Tasselled Cap analysis (TCA) on Landsat imagery from 1985 to 2018 in GEE to calculate the wetness coefficient. We then applied Otsu method for automatic image thresholding on the wetness coefficient to detect waterbodies and shoreline changes. Further, we adopted the nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) from 1992 to 2013 as a proxy of human activities. The results show that in the hotspot areas, the shoreline has moved by more than 5 km in the last decades, accounting for approximately 900 km2 of land accretion. Within this area, the human activity, indicated by the intensity of nighttime light, increased significantly. The results of this work reveal the influence of human activities on the shoreline dynamics and can support policies that promote the sustainable use and conservation of coastal environments. Our methodology can be transferred and applied to other coastal zones in various regions and scaled up to larger areas.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2952  
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