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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.
Title Evolution of the energy consumed by street lighting in Spain estimated with DMSP-OLS data Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 139 Issue Pages 109-117
Keywords Light pollution; Power consumption; Remote sensing; Light pollution models; Spain
Abstract We present the results of the analysis of satellite imagery to study light pollution in Spain. Both calibrated and non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images were used. We describe the method to scale the non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images which allows us to use differential photometry techniques in order to study the evolution of the light pollution. Population data and DMSP-OLS satellite calibrated images for the year 2006 were compared to test the reliability of official statistics in public lighting consumption. We found a relationship between the population and the energy consumption which is valid for several regions. Finally the true evolution of the electricity consumption for street lighting in Spain from 1992 to 2010 was derived; it has been doubled in the last 18 years in most of the provinces.
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (up) 187
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Author Kuechly, H.U.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Lindemann, C.; Wolter, C.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Aerial survey and spatial analysis of sources of light pollution in Berlin, Germany Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 126 Issue Pages 39-50
Keywords Light pollution; Artificial lighting; Urban analysis; Remote sensing; GIS; Darkness; Spatial analysis; Light at night
Abstract Aerial observations of light pollution can fill an important gap between ground based surveys and nighttime satellite data. Terrestrially bound surveys are labor intensive and are generally limited to a small spatial extent, and while existing satellite data cover the whole world, they are limited to coarse resolution. This paper describes the production of a high resolution (1 m) mosaic image of the city of Berlin, Germany at night. The dataset is spatially analyzed to identify the major sources of light pollution in the city based on urban land use data. An area-independent ‘brightness factor’ is introduced that allows direct comparison of the light emission from differently sized land use classes, and the percentage area with values above average brightness is calculated for each class. Using this methodology, lighting associated with streets has been found to be the dominant source of zenith directed light pollution (31.6%), although other land use classes have much higher average brightness. These results are compared with other urban light pollution quantification studies. The minimum resolution required for an analysis of this type is found to be near 10 m. Future applications of high resolution datasets such as this one could include: studies of the efficacy of light pollution mitigation measures, improved light pollution simulations, economic and energy use, the relationship between artificial light and ecological parameters (e.g. circadian rhythm, fitness, mate selection, species distributions, migration barriers and seasonal behavior), or the management of nightscapes. To encourage further scientific inquiry, the mosaic data is freely available at Pangaea: http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.785492.
Address Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Space Sciences, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6‐10, 12165 Berlin, Germany
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ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (up) 188
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Author Hampf, D.; Rowell, G.; Wild, N.; Sudholz, T.; Horns, D.; Tluczykont, M.
Title Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Advances in Space Research Abbreviated Journal Advances in Space Research
Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages 1017-1025
Keywords Observatories and site testing; Airglow and aurorae; Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation
Abstract Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments.

The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler’s Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE.

A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands.

The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 1012 photons/(s sr m2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10−3 sr.

The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.
Address Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
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ISSN 0273-1177 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (up) 189
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Author Falchi, F.
Title Campaign of sky brightness and extinction measurements using a portable CCD camera: Sky brightness and extinction measurements Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 412 Issue 1 Pages 33-48
Keywords sky brightness; monitoring; light pollution; skyglow
Abstract In this paper, we present the results of a 12-yr campaign devoted to monitoring the sky brightness affected by different levels of light pollution. Different sites characterized by different altitudes and atmospheric transparency have been considered. The standard photometric Johnson B and V bands were used. An extinction measurement was performed for each site and each night, along with a calibration of the instrument. These measurements have allowed us to build sky brightness maps of the hemisphere above each observing site; each map contains up to 200 data points spread around the sky. We have found a stop in zenith sky brightness growth at the two sites where a time series exists. Using zenith sky brightness measurements taken with and without extensive snow coverage, we weighted the importance of direct versus indirect flux in producing sky glow at several sites.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (up) 190
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Author Rabaza, O.; Galadi-Enriquez, D.; Estrella, A.E.; Dols, F.A.
Title All-sky brightness monitoring of light pollution with astronomical methods Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 91 Issue 6 Pages 1278-1287
Keywords *Astronomy; Calibration; *Environmental Pollutants; *Light
Abstract This paper describes a mobile prototype and a protocol to measure light pollution based on astronomical methods. The prototype takes three all-sky images using BVR filters of the Johnson-Cousins astronomical photometric system. The stars are then identified in the images of the Hipparcos and General Catalogue of Photometric Data II astronomical catalogues, and are used as calibration sources. This method permits the measurement of night-sky brightness and facilitates an estimate of which fraction is due to the light up-scattered in the atmosphere by a wide variety of man-made sources. This is achieved by our software, which compares the sky background flux to that of many stars of known brightness. The reduced weight and dimensions of the prototype allow the user to make measurements from virtually any location. This prototype is capable of measuring the sky distribution of light pollution, and also provides an accurate estimate of the background flux at each photometric band.
Address Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain. ovidio@ugr.es
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:20199844 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (up) 192
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