|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Miler, M.; Sosic-Jurjevic, B.; Nestorovic, N.; Ristic, N.; Medigovic, I.; Savin, S.; Milosevic, V.
Title Morphological and functional changes in pituitary-thyroid axis following prolonged exposure of female rats to constant light Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Morphology Abbreviated Journal J Morphol
Volume 275 Issue 10 Pages 1161-1172
Keywords TSH cells; constant light; immunohistochemistry; pituitary; rat; thyroid; light exposure
Abstract Light regulates numerous physiological functions and synchronizes them with the environment, in part by adjusting secretion of different hormones. We hypothesized that constant light (CL) would disturb pituitary-thyroid axis. Our aim was to determine morphological and functional changes in this endocrine system in such extreme conditions and, based on the obtained results, to propose the underlying mechanism(s). Starting from the thirtieth postnatal day, female Wistar rats were exposed to CL (600 lx) for the following 95 days. The controls were maintained under the regular laboratory lighting conditions. After decapitation, pituitaries and thyroids were prepared for further histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence examinations. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4 and T3 (TH) were determined. Thyroid tissue of light-treated rats was characterized by microfollicular structure. We detected no change in total thyroid volume, localization and accumulation of thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, and sodium-iodide symporter in the follicular epithelium of CL rats. The volume of follicular epithelium and activation index were increased, while volume of the colloid and serum levels of TH decreased. In the pituitary, the relative intensity of TSH beta-immunofluorescence signal within the cytoplasm of thyrotrophs increased, but their average cell volume and the relative volume density decreased. Serum TSH was unaltered. We conclude that exposure of female rats to CL induced alterations in pituitary-thyroid axis. Thyroid tissue was characterized by microfollicular structure. Serum TH levels were reduced without accompanying increase in serum TSH. We hypothesize that increased secretion and clearance of TH together with unchanged or even decreased hormonal synthesis, resulted in decreased serum TH levels in CL group. We assume this decrease consequently led to increased synthesis and/or accumulation of pituitary TSH. However, decreased average TSH cell volume and relative volume density, together with unchanged serum TSH, point to additional, negative regulation of thyrotrophs. J. Morphol., 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Address Department of Cytology, Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic,” University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-2887 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24797691 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 304
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Semeniuk, Kent (ed)
Title Gazing Up: An Exploration of Municipal Night Lighting Practices Amongst Six Canadian Municipalities Type Manuscript
Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords light pollution; public policy; Canada; outdoor lighting; municipal
Abstract Light pollution is broadly defined as the unnecessary illumination of the nocturnal environment. Light pollution is a pervasive phenomena shown to have harmful consequences for both the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. While some municipalities have begun to address the environmental and economic costs of light pollution, most have not. The goal of this study was to investigate current municipal night lighting practices for six selected Canadian municipalities with the aim of determining their policies and practices for night lighting. Semi-structured interviews with key informants were conducted and analyzed using a mixed methods approach that included a thorough literature review. The results indicate that rising energy costs, aging infrastructure and the lighting industry are driving the majority of changes taking place in adapting municipalities while most municipalities remain content with status quo. The research conducted led to guideline improvements for municipal night lighting in today’s municipalities.
Address School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph
Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis
Publisher University of Guelph Place of Publication Guelph, Ontario Editor Semeniuk, Kent
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 305
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author van Geffen, K.G.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
Title Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages 2082–2089
Keywords Caterpillars; development time; diapause; light pollution; pupal mass; pupation; light exposure; light pollution; biology; moths; insects; Mamestra brassicae
Abstract Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.
Address 1 Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, P.O. box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 306
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Levin, N.; Johansen, K.; Hacker, J.M.; Phinn, S.
Title A new source for high spatial resolution night time images -- The EROS-B commercial satellite Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 149 Issue Pages 1-12
Keywords Night lights; EROS-B; Land cover; Land use; Fine spatial resolution; remote sensing; satellite; light at night
Abstract City lights present one of humankind's most unique footprints on Earth as seen from space. Resulting light pollution from artificial lights obscures the night sky for astronomy and has negative impacts on biodiversity as well as on human health. However, remote sensing studies of night lights to date have been mostly limited to coarse spatial resolution sensors such as the DMSP-OLS. Here we present a new source for high spatial resolution mapping of night lights from space, derived from a commercial satellite. We tasked the Israeli EROS-B satellite to acquire two night-time light images (at a spatial resolution of 1 m) of Brisbane, Australia, and analyzed their radiometric quality and content with respect to land cover and land use. The spatial distribution of night lights as imaged by EROS-B corresponded with night-time images acquired by an airborne camera, although EROS-B was not as sensitive to low light levels. Using land cover and land use data at the statistical local area level, we could statistically explain 89% of the variability in night-time lights. Arterial roads and commercial and service areas were found to be some of the brightest land use types. Overall, we found that EROS-B imagery provides fine spatial resolution images of night lights, opening new avenues for studying light pollution in cities worldwide.
Address Department of Geography, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel.
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 307
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gonzalez, S.A.; Yanez-Navea, K.; Munoz, M.
Title Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Marine Pollution Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Mar Pollut Bull
Volume 83 Issue 1 Pages 265-274
Keywords Anthropogenic impact; Coastal urbanization index; Light pollution; Marine tenebrionid; Phaleria maculata; beetles; insects; urbanization; Chile; morphodynamics; Urbanization Index; indicator organisms
Abstract The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an “Urbanization Index” based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.
Address Departamento de Biologia Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 117, Coquimbo, Chile
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0025-326X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24768173 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 308
Permanent link to this record