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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.
Title Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Abbreviated Journal Environ Monit Assess
Volume 184 Issue 4 Pages 2537-2557
Keywords *Cities; Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation/*methods; *Environmental Pollution; Hong Kong; Humans; *Light
Abstract Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.
Address Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. jcspun@hku.hk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0167-6369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21713499 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 258
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Aubé, M.; Kohút, I.
Title The effect of spatial and spectral heterogeneity of ground-based light sources on night-sky radiances: Light pollution for heterogeneous sources Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 409 Issue 3 Pages 1203-1212
Keywords light pollution; scattering; atmospheric effects; methods: numerical
Abstract Nowadays, light pollution is a permanent problem at many observatories around the world. Elimination of excessive lighting during the night is not only about reduction of the total luminous power of ground-based light sources, but also involves experimenting with the spectral features of single lamps. Astronomical photometry is typically made at specific wavelengths, and thus the analysis of the spectral effects of light pollution is highly important. Nevertheless, studies on the spectral behaviour of night light are quite rare. Instead, broad-band or integral quantities (such as sky luminance) are preferentially measured and modelled. The knowledge of night-light spectra is necessary for the proper interpretation of narrow-band photometry data. In this paper, the night-sky radiances in the nominal spectral lines of the B (445 nm) and V (551 nm) filters are determined numerically under clear-sky conditions. Simultaneously, the corresponding sky-luminance patterns are computed and compared against the spectral radiances. It is shown that spectra, patterns and distances of the most important light sources (towns) surrounding an observatory are essential for determining the light pollution levels. In addition, the optical characteristics of the local atmosphere can change the angular behaviour of the sky radiance or luminance. All these effects are evaluated for two Slovakian observatories: Stará Lesná and Vartovka.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 259
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Author Krisciunas, K.; Bogglio, H.; Sanhueza, P.; Smith, M.G.
Title Light Pollution At High Zenith Angles, As Measured at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory1 Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac
Volume 122 Issue 889 Pages 373-377
Keywords Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Cerro Tololo; Garstang model; skyglow; light pollution; measurements
Abstract On the basis of measurements of the V-band sky brightness obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in 2006 December and 2008 December we confirm the functional form of the basic model of Garstang. At high zenith angles we measure an enhancement of a factor of 2 over Garstang’s later model when there is no marine cloud layer over La Serena/Coquimbo. No corresponding enhancement is found in the B band.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 261
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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Moore, C.W.; Richman, A.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R.
Title From the Ground Up II: Sky Glow and Near-Ground Artificial Light Propagation in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac
Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 204-212
Keywords Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Flagstaff; Arizona; sky brightness; measurements; light pollution; skyglow
Abstract We present panoramic sky brightness measures in the Johnson V band made at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. We find that these measures show much less sky glow from Flagstaff than expected using the total light output and unshielded fraction determined recently by Luginbuhl et al. and Garstang’s 1991 modeling approach. We suggest the difference arises principally from the diminution of upward-directed light after emission from light fixtures and reflection from the ground due to interaction with structures and vegetation. This interaction not only reduces the effective albedo, it also disproportionately reduces flux emitted upward at angles near the horizontal. We explore the size and consequences of this factor in light pollution modeling, and propose a modified upward angular distribution function to account for this effect.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 262
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Author Vázquez-Mata, J.A.; Hernández-Toledo, H.M.; Martínez-Vázquez, L.A.; Pani-Cielo, A.
Title Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Proc. IAU
Volume 5 Issue S260 Pages
Keywords light pollution; observatories; sky brightness; Tonantzintla; Mexico; skyglow
Abstract Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1743-9213 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 263
Permanent link to this record