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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Moore, C.W.; Richman, A.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title From the Ground Up II: Sky Glow and Near-Ground Artificial Light Propagation in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 204-212  
  Keywords Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Flagstaff; Arizona; sky brightness; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract We present panoramic sky brightness measures in the Johnson V band made at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. We find that these measures show much less sky glow from Flagstaff than expected using the total light output and unshielded fraction determined recently by Luginbuhl et al. and Garstang’s 1991 modeling approach. We suggest the difference arises principally from the diminution of upward-directed light after emission from light fixtures and reflection from the ground due to interaction with structures and vegetation. This interaction not only reduces the effective albedo, it also disproportionately reduces flux emitted upward at angles near the horizontal. We explore the size and consequences of this factor in light pollution modeling, and propose a modified upward angular distribution function to account for this effect.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 262  
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Author Vázquez-Mata, J.A.; Hernández-Toledo, H.M.; Martínez-Vázquez, L.A.; Pani-Cielo, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Proc. IAU  
  Volume 5 Issue S260 Pages  
  Keywords light pollution; observatories; sky brightness; Tonantzintla; Mexico; skyglow  
  Abstract Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 1743-9213 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 263  
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Author Massey, P.; Foltz, C. B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Spectrum of the Night Sky over Mount Hopkins and Kitt Peak: Changes after a Decade1 Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 112 Issue 770 Pages 566-573  
  Keywords Kitt Peak; observatories; Arizona; skyglow; light pollution; measurements  
  Abstract Recent (1998–1999) absolute spectrophotometry of the night sky over two southern Arizona astronomical sites, Kitt Peak and Mount Hopkins, is compared to similar data obtained in 1988 at each site. The current zenith sky brightness in the range ∼3700–6700 Ã… is essentially identical at the two sites and is as dark now as Palomar Observatory was in the early 1970s, when it was generally considered a premier dark observing site. Converted to broadband measurements, our spectrophotometry is equivalent to , mag arcsec−2, for the zenith night sky. The contribution of high‐pressure sodium street lights to broadband V is about 0.2 mag arcsec−2, comparable to the strong airglow O i λ5577 line. During the period from 1988 to 1998–1999, the zenith sky brightness increased only modestly, with the largest changes being seen for Kitt Peak, where the zenith sky has brightened by ≈0.1–0.2 mag arcsec−2 in the blue‐optical region. For Kitt Peak we also have both 1988 and 1999 observations at modestly large zenith distances ( ). In the directions away from Tucson, the sky has brightened by ≈0.35 mag arcsec−2 over the intervening decade. Toward Tucson the change has been larger, approximately 0.5 mag arcsec−2. In most directions the increase in the sky brightness has lagged behind the fractional increase in population growth, which we attribute to good outdoor lighting ordinances, a fact which is further reflected in the decrease in Hg emission. However, our results emphasize the need for diligent attention as developments creep closer to our observing sites.  
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  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 264  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 127 Issue Pages 300-307  
  Keywords Animals; Darkness; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Ultraviolet Rays; Light pollution; Optical thickness; Public lighting system; Two stream approximation  
  Abstract Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. kocifaj@savba.sk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23792881 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 265  
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Author Sciezor, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new astronomical method for determining the brightness of the night sky and its application to study long-term changes in the level of light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume 435 Issue 1 Pages 303-310  
  Keywords light pollution methods; data analysis methods; observational site testing; comets; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract In this paper, I present a new method that has been developed for determining the brightness of a cloudless night sky, on the basis of widely available amateur observations of comets. The tests show the correctness of the method, which makes it possible to determine the level of light pollution, defined as the brightness of the artificial sky glow, through the use of the archival observations of comets. The use of data bases of comet observations in Poland in the period 1994–2009 has led to a positive verification of the known model map of the brightness of the night sky. Also, it has been possible to find changes in the level of light pollution in this period, at the selected observation sites.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 266  
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