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Author Riley, W.D.; Bendall, B.; Ives, M.J.; Edmonds, N.J.; Maxwell, D.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street lighting disrupts the diel migratory pattern of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts leaving their natal stream Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture  
  Volume 330-333 Issue Pages 74-81  
  Keywords Artificial light; Behaviour; Migration; Salmon; Smolt; Street lighting  
  Abstract The migratory timing and behaviour of wild Atlantic salmon smolts leaving their natal stream was determined using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) antennae system at a study site on a tributary of the River Itchen, England. Experiments compared the downstream migration of smolts under natural control conditions (2000–2006) with two years (2008 and 2009) when the main downstream exit of the study site was subject to street-lit conditions every alternate night (maximum light intensity measured at the stream surface = 14 lx). Migration of smolts under control conditions was significantly (p < 0.01, n = 170) correlated with sunset. By contrast, street lighting resulted in the timing of migration being random (p = 0.11, n = 7; p = 0.76, n = 34, respectively) with respect to time of day. Furthermore, migration of smolts was significantly (p = 0.01, n = 19) correlated with the time of sunset for fish migrating when the lamp had been off, but random (p = 0.36, n = 22) when the lamp had been on (2008 and 2009 data, combined). This alteration in migratory behaviour due to street lighting may impact fitness.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 69  
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Author Takemura, A.; Ueda, S.; Hiyakawa, N.; Nikaido, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res  
  Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 236-241  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm; *Light; Melatonin/biosynthesis/*secretion; *Moon; Organ Culture Techniques; Perciformes/*physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology/*radiation effects  
  Abstract Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.  
  Address Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Motobu, Okinawa, Japan. tilapia@lab.u-ryukyu.ac.jp  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16499560 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 70  
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Author Baker, B.J.; Richardson, J.M.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of artificial light on male breeding-season behaviour in green frogs,Rana clamitans melanota Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Canadian Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal Can. J. Zool.  
  Volume 84 Issue 10 Pages 1528-1532  
  Keywords animals; amphibians; frogs; green frogs; Rana clamitans melanota; Reproduction; reproductive strategies  
  Abstract Artificial night lighting (or ecological light pollution) is only now gaining attention as a source of long-term effects on the ecology of both diurnal and nocturnal animals. The limited data available clearly indicate that artificial light can affect physiology and behaviour of animals, leading to ecological consequences at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Aquatic ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to such effects, and nocturnally breeding animals such as frogs may be especially affected. To address this potential, we quantify the effects of artificial light on calling and movement behaviour in a rural population of male green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota (Rafinesque, 1820)) during the breeding season. When exposed to artificial light, frogs produced fewer advertisement calls and moved more frequently than under ambient light conditions. Results clearly demonstrate that male green frog behaviour is affected by the presence of artificial light in a manner that has the potential to reduce recruitment rates and thus affect population dynamics.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0008-4301 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 71  
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Author Buchanan, B.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of enhanced lighting on the behaviour of nocturnal frogs Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 893-899  
  Keywords animals; amphibians; frogs; grey treefrog; Hyla chrysoscelis; foraging; infrared  
  Abstract Biologists studying anuran amphibians usually assume that artificial, visible light does not affect the behaviour of nocturnal frogs. This assumption was tested in a laboratory experiment. The foraging behaviour of grey treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis, was compared under four lighting conditions: ambient light (equivalent to bright moonlight, 0·003 lx), red-filtered light (4·1 lx), low-intensity 'white' light (3·8 lx), and high-intensity 'white' light (12·0 lx). The treatments were chosen to correspond to standard methods of field observation of frog behaviour. The foraging behaviour of frogs in the four treatments was observed using infra-red light that was invisible to the frogs. The ability of the frogs to detect, and subsequently consume prey was significantly reduced under all of the enhanced light treatments relative to the ambient light treatment. Thus, the use of artificial light, within the visible spectrum of the frogs' eyes, can influence the outcome of nocturnal behavioural observations. These results lead to the recommendation that anuran biologists use infra-red or light amplification devices when changes in frogs' visual capabilities may influence the conclusions drawn from a study.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 72  
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Jones, R.; Anderson, S.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 2437-2449  
  Keywords GIS analysis; artificial light; conservation planning; marine turtles; population resilience; temporal change  
  Abstract Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation.  
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24353164 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 73  
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