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Author Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C.; Baugh, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages 4423-4449  
  Keywords SNPP; VIIRS; fire detection; gas flaring; biomass burning; fossil fuel carbon emissions  
  Abstract The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2), and radiant heat (MW). Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Power (MW).  
  Address Earth Observation Group, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO 80305, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 199  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.C.; Ghosh, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) VIIRS night-time lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages 5860-5879  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) collects global low-light imaging data that have significant improvements over comparable data collected for 40 years by the DMSP Operational Linescan System. One of the prominent features of DNB data is the detection of electric lighting present on the Earth’s surface. Most of these lights are from human settlements. VIIRS collects source data that could be used to generate monthly and annual science grade global radiance maps of human settlements with electric lighting. There are a substantial number of steps involved in producing a product that has been cleaned to exclude background noise, solar and lunar contamination, data degraded by cloud cover, and features unrelated to electric lighting (e.g. fires, flares, volcanoes). This article describes the algorithms developed for the production of high-quality global VIIRS night-time lights. There is a broad base of science users for VIIRS night-time lights products, ranging from land-use scientists, urban geographers, ecologists, carbon modellers, astronomers, demographers, economists, and social scientists.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1750  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mills, S.; Miller, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) VIIRS Day/Night Band--Correcting Striping and Nonuniformity over a Very Large Dynamic Range Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 9  
  Keywords Instrumentation  
  Abstract The Suomi National Polar-orbiting (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) measures visible and near-infrared light extending over seven orders of magnitude of dynamic range. This makes radiometric calibration difficult. We have observed that DNB imagery has striping, banding and other nonuniformities—day or night. We identified the causes as stray light, nonlinearity, detector crosstalk, hysteresis and mirror-side variation. We found that these affect both Earth-view and calibration signals. These present an obstacle to interpretation by users of DNB products. Because of the nonlinearity we chose the histogram matching destriping technique which we found is successful for daytime, twilight and nighttime scenes. Because of the very large dynamic range of the DNB, we needed to add special processes to the histogram matching to destripe all scenes, especially imagery in the twilight regions where scene illumination changes rapidly over short distances. We show that destriping aids image analysts, and makes it possible for advanced automated cloud typing algorithms. Manual or automatic identification of other features, including polar ice and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere are also discussed. In consideration of the large volume of data produced 24 h a day by the VIIRS DNB, we present methods for reducing processing time.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1400  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Huang, Y.-X.; Ai, W.-H.; Zhao, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Vicarious calibration of S-NPP/VIIRS day-night band using deep convective clouds Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 158 Issue Pages 42-55  
  Keywords Instrumentation, Remote Sensing  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1077  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Variations on a classical theme: On the formal relationship between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal Intl J of Sustainable Lighting  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 77  
  Keywords Instrumentation; skyglow; luminance; magnitude; sky brigthness; photometry  
  Abstract The formal link between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance is discussed in this paper. Directly related to the human visual system, luminance is defined in terms of the spectral radiance of the source, weighted by the CIE V(l) luminous efficiency function, and scaled by the 683 lm/W luminous efficacy constant. In consequence, any exact and spectrum-independent relationship between luminance and magnitudes per square arcsecond requires that the last ones be measured precisely in the CIE V(l) band. The luminance value corresponding to mVC=0 (zero-point of the CIE V(l) magnitude scale) depends on the reference source chosen for the definition of the magnitude system. Using absolute AB magnitudes, the zero point luminance of the CIE V(l) photometric band is 10.96 x 104 cd·m-2.  
  Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2586-1247 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2162  
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