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Author Lockwood, R.; Selwyn, T.; Morgan-Taylor, M.
Title (up) A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Report to Defra, UK Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Economics
Abstract This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defra’s

Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution’s (RCEP) report “Artificial Light in the

Environment”. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by

local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report

has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified

in England and Wales.

The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and

initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.

Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures

such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the

effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they

deliver public road lighting services by:

 switching selected road lights off;

 lighting roads for part of the night only;

 dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;

 reducing the “burning” time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or

 using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or

light emitting diodes (LED).

These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial

financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.

However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road

lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local

authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these

issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post

implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption

criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.

From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local

authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and

environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.

It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities

which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may

affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing

changes appropriate to their circumstances.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 439
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Author Bruce-White, C.; Shardlow, M.
Title (up) A Review of the Impact of Artificial Light on Invertebrates Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Buglife- The Invertebrate Conservation Trust. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Ecology
Abstract
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 683
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title (up) A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue Pages 2-10
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modelling in different environments.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1295
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Author Derrien, M.M; Patricia A. Stokowski, P.A; Manning, R.E.
Title (up) A Rhetorical Analysis of National Park Service and Community Leader Discourses about Night Skies at Acadia National Park Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Park and Recreation Administration Abbreviated Journal J. of Park and Rec. Admin.
Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 32-47
Keywords Society; parks; outreach; Acadia National Park
Abstract Dark night skies are becoming increasingly scarce as human populations increase and development continues to sprawl. Light pollution, and its ecological, social, and cultural impacts are transboundary, multi-jurisdictional issues that require planning and management involving multiple actors on multiple scales. This study examines management of dark night skies at Acadia National Park, where the park and community have worked to keep the night skies relatively dark. Park service managers and community leaders were interviewed, and qualitative methods were used to better understand how each group discursively made the case for the meaning and management of dark night skies at Acadia. In addition to analyzing the explicit content of interviews, enthymemes--arguments with implicit claims--were also evaluated. The rhetorical analysis also focused on the stylistic techniques that supported enthymematic claims; these included establishing legitimacy and credibility, positioning leaders relative to others, and ambiguity. This study showed that NPS arguments tended to frame the role of the community as “buying in” to NPS's efforts to uphold its new night sky-inclusive management policies, while community leaders argued that the night sky was an economic asset, discursively retaining their autonomous interests. Rhetorical discourses functioned to forge the semblance of agreement and the appearance of a “win-win” situation for both groups, even though the underlying premises of their arguments were often and the goals of its management. Other research has found that contested case, contested meanings seemed to represent a case of adjustment and shared responsibility.
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Publisher Sagamore Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1276
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kómar, L.
Title (up) A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 458 Issue 1 Pages 438-448
Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; artificial light; numerical modeling; GIS-based modeling; light pollution
Abstract Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; kocifaj(at)savba.sk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1361
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