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Author Pauwels, J.; Le Viol, I.; Azam, C.; Valet, N.; Julien, J.-F.; Bas, Y.; Lemarchand, C.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Kerbiriou, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Accounting for artificial light impact on bat activity for a biodiversity-friendly urban planning Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning  
  Volume 183 Issue Pages 12-25  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Light pollution constitutes a major threat to biodiversity by decreasing habitat quality and landscape connectivity for nocturnal species. While there is an increasing consideration of biodiversity in urban management policies, the impact of artificial light is poorly accounted for. This is in a large part due to the lack of quantitative information and relevant guidelines to limit its negative effects. Here we compared the potential of two sources of information on light pollution, remote sensing (nocturnal picture taken from the International Space Station ISS) and ground-based (location of streetlights) data, to measure its impact on bats. Our aims were to (i) evaluate how light pollution affected Pipistrellus pipistrellus activity at the city scale, (ii) determine which source of information was the most relevant to measure light pollution’s effect and (iii) define a reproducible methodology applicable in land management to account for biodiversity in lighting planning. We used citizen science data to model the activity of P. pipistrellus, a species considered light tolerant, within three cities of France while accounting for artificial light through a variable based on either source of information. We showed that at the city scale, P. pipistrellus activity is negatively impacted by light pollution irrespective of the light variable used. This detrimental effect was better described by variables based on ISS pictures than on streetlights location. Our methodology can be easily reproduced and used in urban planning to help take the impact of light pollution into consideration and promote a biodiversity-friendly management of artificial light.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2118  
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Author Brandt, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Accuracy of satellite-derived estimates of flaring volume for offshore oil and gas operations in nine countries Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Communications Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Flaring of natural gas contributes to climate change and wastes a potentially valuable energy resource. Various groups have estimated flaring volumes via remote sensing by nighttime detection of flares using multi-spectral imaging. However, only limited efforts have been made to independently assess the accuracy of these estimation methods. I analyze the accuracy of the VIIRS Nightfire published flare detection results, comparing yearly estimated flaring rates to reported flaring data from governments in 9 countries(Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, USA, UK) and 7 years(2012–2018 inclusive). We analyze only flares occurring at offshore oil and gas production platforms and floating production units. A total of 1054 flare volume estimates were compared to volumes reported to government agencies. 80.8% of flare estimates lie within 0.5 orders of magnitude (OM) of reported volumes, which 93.7% fall within 1 OM of the reported volume. Little systematic bias is found except in the smallest size classes(<106 m3 y−1 ). Relative error ratios are larger for smaller flares. No significant trend was observed across years, and variation by country is in line with that expected by size distribution of flares by country. Wide aggregate estimates for groups of flares will exhibit little bias and dispersion, with the sum of 1000 flares having an expected interquartile range of −6% to +3% of actual reported volumes. Social media blurb: Test of remote sensing for flare detection shows accuracy across 9 countries and 8 years.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2958  
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Hanifin, J.P.; Greeson, J.M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D. url  openurl
  Title (up) Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue Pages 6405-6412  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 ± 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence–response curves (R 2 = 0.81–0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R 2 = 0.91), which identifies 446–477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 529  
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Author Eriksen, A.; Wabakken, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Activity patterns at the Arctic Circle: nocturnal eagle owls and interspecific interactions during continuous midsummer daylight Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol  
  Volume 49 Issue 7 Pages e01781  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Circadian rhythms result from adaptations to biotic and abiotic environmental conditions that cycle through the day, such as light, temperature, or temporal overlap between interacting species. At high latitudes, close to or beyond the polar circles, uninterrupted midsummer daylight may pose a challenge to the circadian rhythms of otherwise nocturnal species, such as eagle owls Bubo bubo. By non‐invasive field methods, we studied eagle owl activity in light of their interactions with their main prey the water vole Arvicola amphibius, and their competitor the white‐tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla during continuous midsummer daylight on open, treeless islands in coastal Northern Norway. We evaluated circadian rhythms, temporal overlap, exposure, and spatial distribution. The owls maintained a nocturnal activity pattern, possibly because slightly dimmer light around midnight offered favourable hunting conditions. The eagles were active throughout the 24‐hour period as opposed to the strictly diurnal rhythm reported elsewhere, thus increasing temporal overlap and the potential for interference competition between the two avian predators. This may indicate an asymmetry, with the owls facing the highest cost of interference competition. The presence of eagles combined with constant daylight in this open landscape may make the owls vulnerable to interspecific aggression, and contrary to the available literature, eagle owls rarely exposed themselves visually during territorial calls, possibly to avoid detection by eagles. We found indications of spatial segregation between owls and eagles reflecting differences in main prey, possibly in combination with habitat‐mediated avoidance. Eagle owl vocal activity peaked in the evening before a nocturnal peak in visual observations, when owls were active hunting, consistent with the hypothesis of a dusk chorus in nocturnal bird species. The owls may have had to trade‐off between calling and foraging during the few hours around midnight when slightly dimmer light reduced the detection risk while also providing better hunting conditions.  
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  ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1881  
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Author Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages e37377  
  Keywords Animals; Appetitive Behavior/*physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Female; Light/*adverse effects; Male; Nesting Behavior/*physiology; Netherlands; Passeriformes/*physiology; Photoperiod; Sex Factors  
  Abstract Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22624023; PMCID:PMC3356403 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 45  
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