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Author Bailey, L.A.; Brigham, R.M.; Bohn, S.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Smit, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume 190 Issue 2 Pages 367–374  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; bats; moths; insects; mammals  
  Abstract Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.  
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31139944 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2511  
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Author Kronauer, R.E.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Rahman, S.A.; Czeisler, C.A.; Klerman, E.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) An Exploration of the Temporal Dynamics of Circadian Resetting Responses to Short- and Long-Duration Light Exposures: Cross-Species Consistencies and Differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 497-514  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health  
  Abstract Light is the most effective environmental stimulus for shifting the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Numerous studies have been conducted across multiple species to delineate wavelength, intensity, duration, and timing contributions to the response of the circadian pacemaker to light. Recent studies have revealed a surprising sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to short pulses of light. Such responses have challenged photon counting-based theories of the temporal dynamics of the mammalian circadian system to both short- and long-duration light stimuli. Here, we collate published light exposure data from multiple species, including gerbil, hamster, mouse, and human, to investigate these temporal dynamics and explore how the circadian system integrates light information at both short- and long-duration time scales to produce phase shifts. Based on our investigation of these data sets, we propose 3 new interpretations: (1) intensity and duration are independent factors of total phase shift magnitude, (2) the possibility of a linear/log temporal function of light duration that is universal for all intensities for durations less than approximately 12 min, and (3) a potential universal minimum light duration of ~0.7 sec that describes a “dead zone” of light stimulus. We show that these properties appear to be consistent across mammalian species. These interpretations, if confirmed by further experiments, have important practical implications in terms of understanding the underlying physiology and for the design of lighting regimens to reset the mammalian circadian pacemaker.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31368391 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2600  
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Author Bielli, A.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Doherty, P.D.; Godley, B.J.; Ortiz, C.; Pasara, A.; Wang, J.H.; Mangel, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 108277  
  Keywords Animals; oceans; bycatch; artificial illumination; bycatch reduction technologies  
  Abstract Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) – a visual cue – on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK; bielli.alessandra(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2779  
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Author McHardy, T.M.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J.S.; Miller, S.D.; Hyer, E.J.; Kuehn, R.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) An improved method for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical thickness from the VIIRS Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 5147-5178  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Suomi NPP; VIIRS; DNB; VIIRS DNB; aerosol optical thickness; AERONET; lidar; SEAC4RS  
  Abstract Using Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) data, a method, dubbed the “variance method”, is developed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical thickness (τ) values through the examination of the dispersion of radiance values above an artificial light source. Based on the improvement of a previous algorithm, this updated method derives a semi-quantitative indicator of nighttime τ using artificial light sources. Nighttime τ retrievals from the newly developed method are inter-compared with an interpolated value from late afternoon and early morning ground observations from four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites as well as column-integrated τ from one High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) site at Huntsville, AL during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign, providing full diel coverage. Sensitivity studies are performed to examine the effects of lunar illumination on VIIRS τ retrievals made via the variance method, revealing that lunar contamination may have a smaller impact than previously thought, however the small sample size of this study limits the conclusiveness thus far. VIIRS τ retrievals yield a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.60 and a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of 0.18 when compared against straddling daytime-averaged AERONET τ values. Preliminary results suggest that artificial light sources can be used for estimating regional and global nighttime aerosol distributions in the future.  
  Address Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher European Geosciences Union Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1867-8610 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1182  
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Author Zhuo, L.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.; Li, J.; Liu, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) An improved method of night-time light saturation reduction based on EVI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 36 Issue 16 Pages 4114-4130  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; DMSP; DMSP-OLS; Nighttime Lights; NTL; VANUI; EVI; EANTLI; RCNTL; VIIRS  
  Abstract Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) night-time light (NTL) data have been widely applied to studies on anthropogenic activities and their interactions with the environment. Due to limitations of the OLS sensor, DMSP NTL data suffer from a saturation problem in central urban areas, which further affects studies based on nocturnal lights. Recently, the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index (VANUI) has been developed based on the inverse correlation of vegetation and urban surfaces. Despite its simple implementation and ability to effectively increase variations in NTL data, VANUI does not perform well in certain rapidly growing cities. In this study, we propose a new index, denoted enhanced vegetation index (EVI)-adjusted NTL index (EANTLI), that was developed by reforming the VANUI algorithm and utilizing the EVI. Comparisons with radiance-calibrated NTL (RCNTL) and the new Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data for 15 cities worldwide show that EANTLI reduces saturation in urban cores and mitigates the blooming effect in suburban areas. EANTLI’s similarity to RCNTL and VIIRS is consistently higher than VANUI’s similarity to RCNTL and VIIRS in both spatial distribution and latitudinal transects. EANTLI also yields better results in the estimation of electric power consumption of 166 Chinese prefecture-level cities. In conclusion, EANTLI can effectively reduce NTL saturation in urban centres, thus presenting great potential for wide-range applications.  
  Address Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1245  
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