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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Watson, M.J.; Wilson, D.R.; Mennill, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Anthropogenic light is associated with increased vocal activity by nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal The Condor  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 338-344  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Anthropogenic modifications to the natural environment have profound effects on wild animals, through structural changes to natural ecosystems as well as anthropogenic disturbances such as light and noise. For animals that migrate nocturnally, anthropogenic light can interfere with migration routes, flight altitudes, and social activities that accompany migration, such as acoustic communication. We investigated the effect of anthropogenic light on nocturnal migration of birds through the Great Lakes ecosystem. Specifically, we recorded the vocal activity of migrating birds and compared the number of nocturnal flight calls produced above rural areas with ground-level artificial lights compared to nearby areas without lights. We show that more nocturnal flight calls are detected over artificially lit areas. The median number of nocturnal flight calls recorded at sites with artificial lights (31 per night, interquartile range: 15–135) was 3 times higher than at nearby sites without artificial lights (11 per night, interquartile range: 4–39). By contrast, the number of species detected at lit and unlit sites did not differ significantly (artificially lit sites: 6.5 per night, interquartile range: 5.0–8.8; unlit sites: 4.5 per night, interquartile range: 2.0–7.0). We conclude that artificial lighting changes the behavior of nocturnally migrating birds. The increased detections could be a result of ground-level light sources altering bird behavior during migration. For example, birds might have changed their migratory route to pass over lit areas, flown at lower altitudes over lit areas, increased their calling rate over lit areas, or remained longer over lit areas. Our results for ground-level lights correspond to previous findings demonstrating that migratory birds are influenced by lights on tall structures.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1422  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dorado-Correa, A.M.; Rodríguez-Rocha, M.; Brumm, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 7 Pages 160231  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1484  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Metan S. S.; Kshirsagar A. R.; Samleti G. N.; Patki V. K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Anti-Glare Headlamp a Safe Option for Better Vision to the Rider Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering Abbreviated Journal IJITEE  
  Volume 8 Issue 9S2 Pages 672-678  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract As per the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways report 2018, every day around 410 road fatalities in India, which is one of the highest road crash fatalities in the world. Evaluations show that an average of 1% of nighttime fatal crash lists glare as a major contributor factor. On the multilane highway, vehicle with high glared headlamp light disturbs the approaching motorist eyes due to which the vision of the motorist gets indistinct for a few seconds causing accidents on the road.

In the present work, a novel concept of an anti-glare headlamp is proposed to avoid the temporary blindness of the motorist due to momentary high glares from approaching vehicles. The anti- glare film reduces glare and halos around headlamp light at night and eliminates unattractive reflections on the eyes. A successful attempt is made to analyze the visibility of objects in a scene by inspecting contrast reduction caused by the illuminance contribution. Our visualization of scenes with the cover-up veiling illuminance gives a good indication of the visual problems that might occur, but the images are not exactly what people perceive when observing the scene in reality.

In the present study, after number of samples, it has found that that the mixture of yellow and green color film combination on halogen bulb headlamp will give a good vision to the rider as well as glare-free effect to the approaching motorist. Visualizations with the proposed method can still improve the understanding of human vision so that visual aspects can be taken into account in design and quality assurance of head lamp.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2278-3075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3162  
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Author Miller, M.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Apparent Effects of Light Pollution on Singing Behavior of American Robins Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal Condor  
  Volume 108 Issue 1 Pages 130  
  Keywords American Robin; birds; light pollution; morning chorus; dawn chorus; song; Turdus migratorius; animals; communication  
  Abstract Astronomers consider light pollution to be a growing problem, however few studies have addressed potential effects of light pollution on wildlife. Sunlight is believed to initiate song in many bird species. If light initiates song, then light pollution may be influencing avian song behavior at a population level. This hypothesis predicts that birds breeding in areas with large amounts of artificial light will begin singing earlier in the day than birds in areas with little artificial light. Birds in highly illuminated areas might begin singing earlier than did birds in those same areas in previous years when artificial light levels were known to be, or were presumably, lower. Also, birds should begin singing earlier within a site on brightly lit nights. In 2002 and 2003 I documented initiation of morning song by breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) in areas with differing intensity of artificial nocturnal light. I compared my observations among sites and against historical studies. Robin populations in areas with large amounts of artificial light frequently began their morning chorus during true night. Chorus initiation time, relative to civil twilight, was positively correlated with amount of artificial light present during true night. Robin choruses in areas with little, or presumably little, artificial light have almost never begun during true night, instead appearing to track the onset of civil twilight. Proliferation of artificial nocturnal light may be strongly affecting singing behavior of American Robins at a population level.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 39  
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