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Author Zhou, Y.; Smith, S.J.; Zhao, K.; Imhoff, M.; Thomson, A.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Asrar, G.R.; Zhang, X.; He, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A global map of urban extent from nightlights Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Environmental Research Letters Abbreviated Journal Environ. Res. Lett.  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 054011  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering not just water and carbon cycling, biodiversity, and climate, but also demography, public health, and economy. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the defense meteorological satellite program/operational linescan system nighttime stable-light data at the global level and created a new global 1 km urban extent map for the year 2000. Our map shows that globally, urban is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at the regional level, from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urbanized land varies from about 0.01 to 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration between 30° N and 45° N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80° W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban areas provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offers the potential for producing a time-series of urban area maps for temporal dynamics analyses.  
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  ISSN 1748-9326 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1174  
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Author Pena-Garcia, A.; Nguyen, T.P.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Global Perspective for Sustainable Highway Tunnel Lighting Regulations: Greater Road Safety with a Lower Environmental Impact Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue 12 Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Tunnel lighting installations function 24 h a day, 365 days a year. These infrastructures have increased exponentially and now connect quite distant locations, even on different continents. This has led European administrations and international regulatory bodies to establish regulations for tunnel safety with the lowest environmental impact. However, until now, these regulations have almost exclusively focused on traffic safety, and relegated sustainability to the background. Even though they recognize the need to reduce energy consumption, they do not propose any tools for doing so. Given the impact of these installations and the lack of a specific regulatory framework, Asian countries will soon be forced either to update previous standards for tunnel lighting or elaborate new ones. A better understanding of the weaknesses of European regulations combined with a willingness to embrace innovation could position Asia as a world leader in the regulation of more sustainable road tunnels. The objective of this research was to improve the sustainability of tunnel lighting installations through new regulations or amendments to existing ones, without impairing the mental well-being of users, who could potentially be affected by energy-saving measures. Accordingly, this paper presents and analyzes a broad proposal for formulating tunnel lighting regulations. The originality of this proposal lies in the fact that it integrates road safety, lower environmental impact, and user well-being. Furthermore, it is expected to broaden the perspective of regulatory bodies and public administrations with regard to tunnel installations, which would ultimately enhance their sustainability.  
  Address Department of Development and Sustainability, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani, Thailand. phuoclai@ait.asia  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30486333 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2119  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Sutton, P.C.; Ghosh, T.; Tuttle, B.T.; Baugh, K.E.; Bhaduri, B.; Bright, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A global poverty map derived from satellite data Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Computers & Geosciences Abbreviated Journal Computers & Geosciences  
  Volume 35 Issue 8 Pages 1652-1660  
  Keywords Poverty; DMSP; Nighttime lights; World development indicators; light pollution  
  Abstract A global poverty map has been produced at 30 arcsec resolution using a poverty index calculated by dividing population count (LandScan 2004) by the brightness of satellite observed lighting (DMSP nighttime lights). Inputs to the LandScan product include satellite-derived land cover and topography, plus human settlement outlines derived from high-resolution imagery. The poverty estimates have been calibrated using national level poverty data from the World Development Indicators (WDI) 2006 edition. The total estimate of the numbers of individuals living in poverty is 2.2 billion, slightly under the WDI estimate of 2.6 billion. We have demonstrated a new class of poverty map that should improve over time through the inclusion of new reference data for calibration of poverty estimates and as improvements are made in the satellite observation of human activities related to economic activity and technology access.  
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  ISSN 0098-3004 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 123  
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Author Walch, O.J.; Cochran, A.; Forger, D.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances  
  Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages e1501705-e1501705  
  Keywords Human Health; Sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; smartphone; society  
  Abstract The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.  
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  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1440  
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Author Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Asrar, G.R.; Smith, S.J.; Imhoff, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A global record of annual urban dynamics (1992–2013) from nighttime lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 219 Issue Pages 206-220  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The nighttime light (NTL) observations from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) offer great potentials to study urban dynamics from regional to global scales, for more than two decades. In this paper, we presented a new approach to develop spatially and temporally consistent global urban maps from 1992 to 2013, using the DMSP/OLS NTL observations. First, potential urban clusters were delineated using the NTL data and a segmentation method. Then, a quantile-based approach was used to remove rural and suburban areas sequentially in the potential urban clusters. Finally, the derived series of urban extents in the entire study period (1992–2013) were improved for temporal consistency. We found the percentage of global urban areas relative to the world's land surface area increased from 0.23% in 1992 to 0.53% in 2013. Asia is the continent with the most significant urban growth, worldwide. The time series of global urban maps were evaluated for the spatial agreement and temporal consistency using a variety of widely used independent land-cover products. This evaluation indicates that the proposed approach is robust and performs well in deriving global urban dynamics across different spatial scales, i.e., cluster, province (or state), country, and region. Moreover, this quantile-based approach is advantageous, compared with other methods used in previous studies, because it does not require additional data for enhancement or calibration. The new time series of urban maps from this study offer a new dataset for studying global urbanization during the past decades and unique information to explore potential future trajectories of urban development, which appears to be distinct for different nations/regions, globally. Such information is pre-requisite for achieving the sustainable development goals, and associated targets, during ensuing decades.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2048  
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