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Author Stockl, A.L.; Ribi, W.A.; Warrant, E.J.
Title (up) Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication The Journal of Comparative Neurology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Neurol
Volume 524 Issue 1 Pages 160–175
Keywords vision, animals
Abstract Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths having considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology – the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. Interestingly, the overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 22362, Lund, Sweden
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ISSN 0021-9967 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26100612 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1190
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Author Halfwerk, W.; Blaas, M.; Kramer, L.; Hijner, N.; Trillo, P.A.; Bernal, X.E.; Page, R.A.; Goutte, S.; Ryan, M.J.; Ellers, J.
Title (up) Adaptive changes in sexual signalling in response to urbanization Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 3 Issue Pages 374-380
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urbanization can cause species to adjust their sexual displays, because the effectiveness of mating signals is influenced by environmental conditions. Despite many examples that show that mating signals in urban conditions differ from those in rural conditions, we do not know whether these differences provide a combined reproductive and survival benefit to the urban phenotype. Here we show that male tungara frogs have increased the conspicuousness of their calls, which is under strong sexual and natural selection by signal receivers, as an adaptive response to city life. The urban phenotype consequently attracts more females than the forest phenotype, while avoiding the costs that are imposed by eavesdropping bats and midges, which we show are rare in urban areas. Finally, we show in a translocation experiment that urban frogs can reduce risk of predation and parasitism when moved to the forest, but that forest frogs do not increase their sexual attractiveness when moved to the city. Our findings thus reveal that urbanization can rapidly drive adaptive signal change via changes in both natural and sexual selection pressures.
Address Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30532046 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2136
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Author Bhukya, K. A., Ramasubbareddy, S., Govinda, K., & Srinivas, T. A. S.
Title (up) Adaptive Mechanism for Smart Street Lighting System Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Smart Intelligent Computing and Applications Abbreviated Journal
Volume 160 Issue Pages 69-76
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The adaptive street light has the ability to adapt to the motion of cycles, cars and pedestrians. It uses motion as well as light sensors to detect the traffic and light around. It dims when there is no movement on the road, and is brightened when there is any activity. Smart street lights are very dissimilar from the old methods of lighting. It is an automated system that will be able to automate the streets. The main objective of these lights is to decrease the utilization of power, while no activity is detected on the street. It will be switched ON while there are pedestrians and cars on the street or else they will get dimmed to 20% of the brightness. The proposed approach gives a method to conserve power by using the PIR sensors to sense the incoming traffic and hence turning ON a cluster of lights surrounding the traffic. As the traffic is passing by, the street lights left behind will dim on its own. Hence, a lot of power can be conserved. Also, during the day time when there is no need of light the LDR sensor will sense the light and the light will remain switched OFF. This smart street light system comes under the domain of smart city.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2723
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Author Baumeister, J.
Title (up) Adaptives Stadtlicht: Untersuchung einer sich an Passanten und Umweltbedingungen anpassenden LED-Beleuchtung urbaner Räume. Braunschweig: Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina. Type Book Whole
Year 2008 Publication Technische Universität Braunschweig Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Society
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Corporate Author Thesis Doctoral thesis
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 992
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Author Peixoto, C.A.T.; da Silva, A.G.T.; Carskadon, M.A.; Louzada, F.M.
Title (up) Adolescents living in homes without electric lighting have earlier sleep times Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Behavioral Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Behav Sleep Med
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 73-80
Keywords Human Health; Sleep
Abstract The aim of this project was to compare circadian rhythmicity of a group of 37 adolescents (14 girls), aged 11 to 16 (mean age = 13.1 +/- 1.7 years), with and without electricity at home. Twenty students attended morning school (07:30-11:30), and 17 attended evening school classes (19:00-22:30). Eleven adolescents had no electric lighting at home (5 attended morning classes and 6 attended evening classes). They completed a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for 5 consecutive days. Saliva samples were collected to assess DLMO. Data were compared by ANOVA and showed later timing and a more extended sleep period for those who attended late classes. Those adolescents without electricity at home had significantly earlier sleep onset on school days. As to DLMO, a trend to a delay was observed in the groups who had electric lighting.
Address Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil. pedatardelli@yahoo.com.br
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ISSN 1540-2002 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19330580 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1481
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