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Author Hopkins, G.R.; Gaston, K.J.; Visser, M.E.; Elgar, M.A.; Jones, T.M.
Title (up) Artificial light at night as a driver of evolution across urban-rural landscapes Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Front Ecol Environ
Volume 16 Issue 8 Pages 472-479
Keywords Ecology, Commentary
Abstract Light is fundamental to biological systems, affecting the daily rhythms of bacteria, plants, and animals. Artificial light at night (ALAN), a ubiquitous feature of urbanization, interferes with these rhythms and has the potential to exert strong selection pressures on organisms living in urban environments. ALAN also fragments landscapes, altering the movement of animals into and out of artificially lit habitats. Although research has documented phenotypic and genetic differentiation between urban and rural organisms, ALAN has rarely been considered as a driver of evolution. We argue that the fundamental importance of light to biological systems, and the capacity for ALAN to influence multiple processes contributing to evolution, makes this an important driver of evolutionary change, one with the potential to explain broad patterns of population differentiation across urban–rural landscapes. Integrating ALAN's evolutionary potential into urban ecology is a targeted and powerful approach to understanding the capacity for life to adapt to an increasingly urbanized world.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2073
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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C.
Title (up) Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696
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Author Parkinson, E.; Lawson, J.; Tiegs, S.D.
Title (up) Artificial light at night at the terrestrial-aquatic interface: Effects on predators and fluxes of insect prey Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages e0240138
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The outcomes of species interactions-such as those between predators and prey-increasingly depend on environmental conditions that are modified by human activities. Light is among the most fundamental environmental parameters, and humans have dramatically altered natural light regimes across much of the globe through the addition of artificial light at night (ALAN). The consequences for species interactions, communities and ecosystems are just beginning to be understood. Here we present findings from a replicated field experiment that simulated over-the-water lighting in the littoral zone of a small lake. We evaluated responses by emergent aquatic insects and terrestrial invertebrate communities, and riparian predators (tetragnathid spiders). On average ALAN plots had 51% more spiders than control plots that were not illuminated. Mean individual spider body mass was greater in ALAN plots relative to controls, an effect that was strongly sex-dependent; mean male body mass was 34% greater in ALAN plots while female body mass was 176% greater. The average number of prey items captured in spider webs was 139% greater on ALAN mesocosms, an effect attributed to emergent aquatic insects. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and a multiple response permutation procedure revealed significantly different invertebrate communities captured in pan traps positioned in ALAN plots and controls. Control plots had taxonomic-diversity values (as H') that were 58% greater than ALAN plots, and communities that were 83% more-even. We attribute these differences to the aquatic family Caenidae which was the dominant family across both light treatments, but was 818% more abundant in ALAN plots. Our findings show that when ALAN is located in close proximity to freshwater it can concentrate fluxes of emergent aquatic insects, and that terrestrial predators in the littoral zone can compound this effect and intercept resource flows, preventing them from entering the terrestrial realm.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States of America
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33031444 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3173
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Author Giavi, S.; Blosch, S.; Schuster, G.; Knop, E.
Title (up) Artificial light at night can modify ecosystem functioning beyond the lit area Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 11870
Keywords plants; ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a relatively new and rapidly increasing global change driver. While evidence on adverse effects of ALAN for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is increasing, little is known on the spatial extent of its effects. We therefore tested whether ALAN can affect ecosystem functioning in areas adjacent to directly illuminated areas. We exposed two phytometer species to three different treatments of ALAN (sites directly illuminated, sites adjacent to directly illuminated sites, control sites without illumination), and we measured its effect on the reproductive output of both plant species. Furthermore, in one of the two plant species, we quantified pre-dispersal seed predation and the resulting relative reproductive output. Finally, under controlled condition in the laboratory, we assessed flower visitation and oviposition of the main seed predator in relation to light intensity. There was a trend for reduced reproductive output of one of the two plant species on directly illuminated sites, but not of the other. Compared to dark control sites, seed predation was significantly increased on dark sites adjacent to illuminated sites, which resulted in a significantly reduced relative reproductive output. Finally, in the laboratory, the main seed predator flew away from the light source to interact with its host plant in the darkest area available, which might explain the results found in the field. We conclude that ALAN can also affect ecosystem functioning in areas not directly illuminated, thereby having ecological consequences at a much larger scale than previously thought.
Address Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland. eva.knop@ieu.uzh.ch
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32681056; PMCID:PMC7368033 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3076
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Author van Geffen, K.G.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
Title (up) Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages 2082–2089
Keywords Caterpillars; development time; diapause; light pollution; pupal mass; pupation; light exposure; light pollution; biology; moths; insects; Mamestra brassicae
Abstract Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.
Address 1 Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, P.O. box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 306
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