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Author Rodriguez, A.; Holmes, N.D.; Ryan, P.G.; Wilson, K.-J.; Faulquier, L.; Murillo, Y.; Raine, A.F.; Penniman, J.; Neves, V.; Rodriguez, B.; Negro, J.J.; Chiaradia, A.; Dann, P.; Anderson, T.; Metzger, B.; Shirai, M.; Deppe, L.; Wheeler, J.; Hodum, P.; Gouveia, C.; Carmo, V.; Carreira, G.P.; Delgado-Alburqueque, L.; Guerra-Correa, C.; Couzi, F.-X.; Travers, M.; Le Corre, M.
Title (up) A global review of seabird mortality caused by land-based artificial lights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 986-1001
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are grounded by lights when they fly at night. We review the current state of knowledge of light attraction, identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although other avian families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be involved, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters: at least 56 species, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are grounded by lights. Grounded seabirds have been found worldwide, mainly on oceanic islands but also at some continental locations. Petrel breeding grounds confined to formerly uninhabited islands are particularly at risk from ever-growing levels of light pollution due to tourism and urban sprawl. Where it is impractical to ban external lights, rescue programs of grounded birds offer the most immediate and extended mitigation measures to reduce light-induced mortality, saving thousands of birds every year. These programs also provide useful information for seabird management. However, the data typically are fragmentary and often strongly biased so the phenomenon is poorly understood, leading to inaccurate impact estimates. We identified as the most urgent priority actions: 1) estimation of mortality and impact on populations; 2) assessment of threshold light levels and safe distances from light sources; 3) documenting the fate of rescued birds; 4) improvement of rescue campaigns, particularly in terms of increasing recovery rates and level of care; and 5) research on seabird-friendly lights to reduce attraction. More research is necessary to improve our understanding of this human-wildlife conflict and to design effective management and mitigation measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address UMR ENTROPIE, Universite de la Reunion 15, avenue Rene Cassin – CS 92003 97744 Saint Denis Cedex 9, La Reunion, France
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28151557 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1632
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Author Falchetta, G.; Pachauri, S.; Parkinson, S.; Byers, E.
Title (up) A high-resolution gridded dataset to assess electrification in sub-Saharan Africa Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 110
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatially explicit data on electricity access and use are essential for effective policy-making and infrastructure planning in low-income, data-scarce regions. We present and validate a 1-km resolution electricity access dataset covering sub-Saharan Africa built on gridded nighttime light, population, and land cover data. Using light radiance probability distributions, we define electricity consumption tiers for urban and rural areas and estimate the by-tier split of consumers living in electrified areas. The approach provides new insight into the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of electricity access, and a measure of its quality beyond binary access. We find our estimates to be broadly consistent with recently published province- and national-level statistics. Moreover, we demonstrate consistency between the estimated electricity access quality indicators and survey-based consumption levels defined in accordance with the World Bank Multi-Tier Framework. The dataset is readily reproduced and updated using an open-access scientific computing framework. The data and approach can be applied for improving the assessment of least-cost electrification options, and examining links between electricity access and other sustainable development objectives.
Address Energy Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schossplatz 1, 2361, Laxenburg, Austria
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ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:31270329; PMCID:PMC6610126 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2559
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Author Gould, G.M.
Title (up) A hitherto undescribed visual phenomenon Type Journal Article
Year 1903 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 18 Issue Pages 536-537
Keywords Vision; Psychology
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2408
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Author Wakil, K., Naeem, M. A., Anjum, G. A., Waheed, A., Thaheem, M. J., ul Hussnain, M. Q., & Nawaz, R.
Title (up) A Hybrid Tool for Visual Pollution Assessment in Urban Environments Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal
Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages 1-16
Keywords Planning
Abstract With increasing focus on more nuanced aspects of quality of life, the phenomenon of urban visual pollution has been progressively gaining attention from researchers and policy makers, especially in the developed world. However, the subjectivity and complexity of assessing visual pollution in urban settings remain a challenge, especially given the lack of robust and reliable methods for quantification of visual pollution. This paper presents a novel systematic approach for the development of a robust Visual Pollution Assessment (VPA) tool. A key feature of our methodology is explicit and systematic incorporation of expert and public opinion for listing and ranking Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs). Moreover, our methodology deploys established empirical complex decision-making techniques to address the challenge of subjectivity in weighting the impact of individual VPOs. The resultant VPA tool uses close-ended options to capture the presence and characteristics of various VPOs on a given node. Based on these inputs, it calculates a point based visual pollution scorecard for the observation point. The performance of the VPA tool has been extensively tested and verified at various locations in Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such tool, both in terms of quantitative robustness and broad coverage of VPOs. Our VPA tool will help regulators in assessing and charting visual pollution in a consistent and objective manner. It will also help policy makers by providing an empirical basis for gathering evidence; hence facilitating evidence-based and evidence-driven policy strategies, which are likely to have significant impact, especially in the developing countries.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2344
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Author Dobler, G.; Ghandehari, M.; Koonin, S.E.; Sharma, M.S.
Title (up) A Hyperspectral Survey of New York City Lighting Technology Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)
Volume 16 Issue 12 Pages 2047
Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation; Lighting
Abstract Using side-facing observations of the New York City (NYC) skyline, we identify lighting technologies via spectral signatures measured with Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging. The instrument is a scanning, single slit spectrograph with 872 spectral channels from 0.4-1.0 mu m. With a single scan, we are able to clearly match the detected spectral signatures of 13 templates of known lighting types. However, many of the observed lighting spectra do not match those that have been measured in the laboratory. We identify unknown spectra by segmenting our observations and using Template-Activated Partition (TAP) clustering with a variety of underlying unsupervised clustering methods to generate the first empirically-determined spectral catalog of roughly 40 urban lighting types. We show that, given our vantage point, we are able to determine lighting technology use for both interior and exterior lighting. Finally, we find that the total brightness of our scene shows strong peaks at the 570 nm Na – II , 595 nm Na – II and 818 nm Na – I lines that are common in high pressure sodium lamps, which dominate our observations.
Address NYU Center for Urban Science and Progress, 1 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. mohit.sharma@nyu.edu
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ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:27929391 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1567
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