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Author Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting Systems  
  Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446  
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Author Pack, D. W., Coffman, C. M., & Santiago, J. R. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Year in Space for the CUbesat MULtispectral Observing System: CUMULOS Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication 33rd Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume SSC19-XI-01 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract CUMULOS is a three-camera system flying as a secondary payload on the Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna (ISARA) mission with the goals of researching the use of uncooled commercial infrared cameras for Earth

remote sensing and demonstrating unique nighttime remote sensing capabilities. Three separate cameras comprise the CUMULOS payload: 1) a visible (VIS) Si CMOS camera, 2) a shortwave infrared (SWIR) InGaAs camera, and 3) a longwave infrared (LWIR) vanadium oxide microbolometer. This paper reviews on-orbit operations during the past year, in-space calibration observations and techniques, and Earth remote sensing highlights from the first year of space

operations. CUMULOS operations commenced on 8 June 2018 following the successful completion of the primary ISARA mission. Some of the unique contributions from the CUMULOS payloads include: 1) demonstrating the use of bright stars for on-orbit radiometric calibration of CubeSat payloads, 2) acquisition of science-quality nighttime lights data at 130-m resolution, and 3) operating the first simple Earth observing infrared payloads successfully flown on a CubeSat. Sample remote sensing results include images of: cities at night, ship lights (including fishing vessels), oil industry gas flares, serious wildfires, volcanic activity, and daytime and nighttime clouds. The CUMULOS VIS camera has measured calibrated nightlights imagery of major cities such as Los Angeles, Singapore, Shanghai, Tokyo, Kuwait City, Abu Dhabi, Jeddah, Istanbul, and London at more than 5x the resolution of VIIRS. The utility of these data for measuring light pollution, and mapping urban growth and infrastructure development at higher resolution than

VIIRS is being studied, with an emphasis placed on Los Angeles. The “Carr”, “Camp” and “Woolsey” fires from the 2018 California fire season were imaged with all three cameras and results highlight the excellent wildfire imaging

performance that can be achieved by small sensors. The SWIR camera has exhibited extreme sensitivity to flare and fire hotspots, and was even capable of detecting airglow-illuminated nighttime cloud structures by taking advantage of the strong OH emissions within its 0.9-1.7 micron bandpass. The LWIR microbolometer has proven successful at providing cloud context imagery for our nightlights mapping experiments, can detect very large fires and the brightest flare hotspots, and can also image terrain temperature variation and urban heat islands at 300-m resolution. CUMULOS capabilities show the potential of CubeSats and small sensors to perform several VIIRS-like nighttime mission areas in which wide area coverage can be traded for greater resolution over a smaller field of view. The sensor

has been used in collaboration with VIIRS researchers to explore these mission areas and side-by-side results will be presented illustrating the capabilities as well as the limitations of small aperture LEO CubeSat systems.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2736  
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Author Wu, W.; Zhao, H.; Jiang, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Zipf's Law-Based Method for Mapping Urban Areas Using NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 130  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract A significant difficulty in urban studies is obtaining urban areas. Nighttime light (NTL) data provide efficient approaches to map urban areas. Previous methods have utilized visual particularities of cities with ancillary data to obtain the optimal thresholds. How cities behave differently from rural areas should be considered. A Zipf’s law-based method is proposed to bootstrap the optimal threshold based on the statistical properties of a Zipf’s law model on continuous thresholds at the country scale. In our method, the Zipf’s law model is utilized to quantify fractal, self-organized, and agglomeration behaviors of cities. The three-phase cluster dynamics are discovered and the abrupt transition between Phase 1 and Phase 2 denotes the rural-urban demarcation point. The urban areas are derived by the proposed method from the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) NTL data in 2013 in China. An accuracy assessment is conducted to compare it with the GlobeLand30-2010 data and the overall accuracy has directly confirmed the effectiveness of the method. The validation using point of interest (POI) data verifies that the urban areas show strong responses to social interactions and production with R2 values of 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, implying that the city areas extracted by our method can be a proxy for human activities. Comparisons with existing methods validate the effectiveness and high degree of automation of the proposed method in mapping urban areas at the country level. According to our analyses, the Zipf’s law-based method shows great potential to provide a universal criterion to map urban areas from the perspective of the behaviors of urban systems without ancillary data, and a valuable tool for spatial and temporal urban studies.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1797  
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Author LeGates, T.A.; Altimus, C.M.; Wang, H.; Lee, H.-K.; Yang, S.; Zhao, H.; Kirkwood, A.; Weber, E.T.; Hattar, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 491 Issue 7425 Pages 594-598  
  Keywords Affect/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Body Temperature Regulation/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cognition/drug effects/physiology/radiation effects; Corticosterone/metabolism; Depression/etiology/physiopathology; Desipramine/pharmacology; Fluoxetine/pharmacology; Learning/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; *Light; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects; Male; Memory/physiology/radiation effects; Mice; Photoperiod; Retinal Ganglion Cells/drug effects/*metabolism/*radiation effects; *Rod Opsins/analysis; Sleep/physiology; Wakefulness/physiology  
  Abstract The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear. Here we show, using an aberrant light cycle that neither changes the amount and architecture of sleep nor causes changes in the circadian timing system, that light directly regulates mood-related behaviours and cognitive functions in mice. Animals exposed to the aberrant light cycle maintain daily corticosterone rhythms, but the overall levels of corticosterone are increased. Despite normal circadian and sleep structures, these animals show increased depression-like behaviours and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. Administration of the antidepressant drugs fluoxetine or desipramine restores learning in mice exposed to the aberrant light cycle, suggesting that the mood deficit precedes the learning impairments. To determine the retinal circuits underlying this impairment of mood and learning, we examined the behavioural consequences of this light cycle in animals that lack intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In these animals, the aberrant light cycle does not impair mood and learning, despite the presence of the conventional retinal ganglion cells and the ability of these animals to detect light for image formation. These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.  
  Address Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23151476; PMCID:PMC3549331 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 238  
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Author Melville, H.I.A.S.; Conway, W.C.; Hardin, J.B.; Comer, C.E.; Morrison, M.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Abiotic variables influencing the nocturnal movements of bobcats and coyotes Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Wildlife Biology Abbreviated Journal Wildlife Biology  
  Volume 2020 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Moonlight  
  Abstract Despite the increasing spatial, temporal and dietary overlap between bobcats Lynx rufus and coyotes Canis latrans, these species live sympatrically throughout much of North America. To determine if differential activity patterns relative to abiotic variables might influence interspecific interactions, we investigated whether these species responded differentially to crepuscular and nocturnal abiotic variables in Texas. Using GPS collars, we calculated hourly movements from sequential locations, and compared bobcat and coyote movements relative to sex, season, moonlight intensity, night period, crepuscularity and temperature. We used generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMM) to investigate the responses of bobcats and coyotes to variables associated to their nocturnal movements. Temperature and its interactions with various abiotic variables influenced bobcat movements. Biological season and its interactions with other abiotic variables influenced coyote movements. Bobcats moved shorter hourly distances than coyotes. Female bobcats moved shorter hourly distances than males. Moonlight intensity seemed to influence coyotes but not bobcats. Differential movements between bobcats and coyotes relative to night period could possibly be due behavioral avoidance of coyotes by bobcats. Reduced crepuscular activity by coyotes may be behavioral avoidance of humans. Differential responses to nocturnal variables may dampen competitive interactions between bobcats and coyotes.  
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  ISSN 0909-6396 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3052  
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