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Author Gerrish, G.A.; Morin, J.G.; Rivers, T.J.; Patrawala, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Darkness as an ecological resource: the role of light in partitioning the nocturnal niche Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume 160 Issue 3 Pages 525-536  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Belize; Crustacea/*physiology; *Darkness; *Ecosystem; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Linear Models; Motor Activity/*physiology; Photoperiod; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology; Water Movements  
  Abstract Nocturnal behaviors that vary as a function of light intensity, either from the setting sun or the moon, are typically labeled as circadian or circalunar. Both of these terms refer to endogenous time-dependent behaviors. In contrast, the nightly reproductive and feeding behaviors of Vargula annecohenae, a bioluminescent ostracod (Arthropoda: Crustacea) fluctuate in response to light intensity, an exogenous factor that is not strictly time-dependent. We measured adult and juvenile activity of V. annecohenae throughout lunar cycles in January/February and June 2003. Overnight and nightly measurements of foraging and reproductive behavior of adult V. annecohenae indicated that activity was greatest when a critical “dark threshold” was reached and that the dark threshold for adult V. annecohenae is met when less than a third of the moon is visible or at the intensity of light 2-3 min before the start of nautical twilight when no moon is illuminated. Juvenile V. annecohenae were also nocturnally active but demonstrated little or no response to lunar illumination, remaining active even during brightly moonlit periods. In addition to light level, water velocity also influenced the behaviors of V. annecohenae, with fewer juveniles and adults actively foraging on nights when water velocity was high (>25 cm/s). Our data demonstrate that the strongest environmental factor influencing adult feeding and reproductive behaviors of V. annecohenae is the availability of time when illumination is below the critical dark threshold. This dependence on darkness for successful growth and reproduction allows us to classify darkness as a resource, in the same way that the term has been applied to time, space and temperature.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. ggerrish@nd.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19330516 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 16  
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Author Horváth, G.; Kriska, G.; Malik, P.; Robertson, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 317-325  
  Keywords light pollution; polarization; polarized light pollution  
  Abstract The alteration of natural cycles of light and dark by artificial light sources has deleterious impacts on animals and ecosystems. Many animals can also exploit a unique characteristic of light – its direction of polarization –as a source of information. We introduce the term “polarized light pollution” (PLP) to focus attention on the ecological consequences of light that has been polarized through interaction with human-made objects. Unnatural polarized light sources can trigger maladaptive behaviors in polarization-sensitive taxa and alter ecological interactions. PLP is an increasingly common byproduct of human technology, and mitigating its effects through selective use of building materials is a realistic solution. Our understanding of how most species use polarization vision is limited, but the capacity of PLP to drastically increase mortality and reproductive failure in animal populations suggests that PLP should become a focus for conservation biologists and resource managers alike.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 22  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 116 Issue D24 Pages  
  Keywords aeroecology; ecological light pollution; light pollution; moonlight; nocturnal navigation; polarized light  
  Abstract On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow pwould likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.  
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  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 21  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages e17307  
  Keywords Berlin; *Cities; *Ecosystem; Environmental Pollution/*adverse effects/analysis; *Light; Seasons; *Weather  
  Abstract The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this “ecological light pollution”. We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.  
  Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21399694; PMCID:PMC3047560 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 20  
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Author Kunz, T.H.; Gauthreaux, S.A.J.; Hristov, N.I.; Horn, J.W.; Jones, G.; Kalko, E.K.V.; Larkin, R.P.; McCracken, G.F.; Swartz, S.M.; Srygley, R.B.; Dudley, R.; Westbrook, J.K.; Wikelski, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aeroecology: probing and modeling the aerosphere Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Integrative and Comparative Biology Abbreviated Journal Integr Comp Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords aeroecology; light; biology  
  Abstract Aeroecology is a discipline that embraces and integrates the domains of atmospheric science, ecology, earth science, geography, computer science, computational biology, and engineering. The unifying concept that underlies this emerging discipline is its focus on the planetary boundary layer, or aerosphere, and the myriad of organisms that, in large part, depend upon this environment for their existence. The aerosphere influences both daily and seasonal movements of organisms, and its effects have both short- and long-term consequences for species that use this environment. The biotic interactions and physical conditions in the aerosphere represent important selection pressures that influence traits such as size and shape of organisms, which in turn facilitate both passive and active displacements. The aerosphere also influences the evolution of behavioral, sensory, metabolic, and respiratory functions of organisms in a myriad of ways. In contrast to organisms that depend strictly on terrestrial or aquatic existence, those that routinely use the aerosphere are almost immediately influenced by changing atmospheric conditions (e.g., winds, air density, precipitation, air temperature), sunlight, polarized light, moon light, and geomagnetic and gravitational forces. The aerosphere has direct and indirect effects on organisms, which often are more strongly influenced than those that spend significant amounts of time on land or in water. Future advances in aeroecology will be made when research conducted by biologists is more fully integrated across temporal and spatial scales in concert with advances made by atmospheric scientists and mathematical modelers. Ultimately, understanding how organisms such as arthropods, birds, and bats aloft are influenced by a dynamic aerosphere will be of importance for assessing, and maintaining ecosystem health, human health, and biodiversity.  
  Address *Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK; Department of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069, Ulm, Germany; Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA; **USDA-ARS, 1500 N. Central Avenue, Sidney, MT 59270, USA; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; USDA-ARS, 2771 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1540-7063 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21669768 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 19  
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