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Author Ghosh, T.; Elvidge, C.D.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Dimming of Lights in India during the COVID-19 Pandemic Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 20 Pages 3289  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; COVID  
  Abstract The monthly Suomi National Polar-orbiting (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day–Night Band (DNB) composite reveals the dimming of lights as an effect of the lockdown enforced by the government of India in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The changes in lighting are examined by creating difference maps of a pre-pandemic pair and comparing it with two pandemic pairs. The visual raster difference maps are substantiated with quantitative analysis showing the proportion of population affected by the changes in the lighting brightness levels. In the pre-pandemic images of February and March 2019, 60% of the population lived in administrative units that became brighter in March 2019. However, in the first pandemic pair, 87% of the population lived in administrative units that became dimmer in March 2020 after the lockdown in comparison to February 2020. The nightly DNB profile at the airport in Delhi illustrate how the dimming of lights coincide with the date of the onset of the lockdown (in March 2020). The study shows the usefulness of the DNB nightly and monthly composites in examining economic impacts of the pandemic as countries throughout the world go through economic declines and move towards recovery.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3201  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Taneja, J.; Bazilian, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Indicators of Electric Power Instability from Satellite Observed Nighttime Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 19 Pages 3194  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Electric power services are fundamental to prosperity and economic development. Disruptions in the electricity power service can range from minutes to days. Such events are common in many developing economies, where the power generation and delivery infrastructure is often insufficient to meet demand and operational challenges. Yet, despite the large impacts, poor data availability has meant that relatively little is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of electric power reliability. Here, we explore the expressions of electric power instability recorded in temporal profiles of satellite observed surface lighting collected by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) low light imaging day/night band (DNB). The nightly temporal profiles span from 2012 through to mid-2020 and contain more than 3000 observations, each from a total of 16 test sites from Africa, Asia, and North America. We present our findings in terms of various novel indicators. The preprocessing steps included radiometric adjustments designed to reduce variance due to the view angle and lunar illumination differences. The residual variance after the radiometric adjustments suggests the presence of a previously unidentified source of variability in the DNB observations of surface lighting. We believe that the short dwell time of the DNB pixel collections results in the vast under-sampling of the alternating current lighting flicker cycles. We tested 12 separate indices and looked for evidence of power instability. The key characteristic of lights in cities with developing electric power services is that they are quite dim, typically 5 to 10 times dimmer for the same population level as in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. In fact, the radiances for developing cities are just slightly above the detection limit, in the range of 1 to 10 nanowatts. The clearest indicator for power loss is the percent outage. Indicators for supply adequacy include the radiance per person and the percent of population with detectable lights. The best indicator for load-shedding is annual cycling, which was found in more than half of the grid cells in two Northern India cities. Cities with frequent upward or downward radiance spikes can have anomalously high levels of variance, skew, and kurtosis. A final observation is that, barring war or catastrophic events, the year-on-year changes in lighting are quite small. Most cities are either largely stable over time, or are gradually increasing in indices such as the mean, variance, and lift, indicating a trajectory that proceeds across multiple years.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3175  
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Author Ivan, K.; Holobâcă, I.-H.; Benedek, J.; Török, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Income Estimation at Local Level Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 18 Pages 2950  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The aim of the paper is to develop a model for the real-time estimation of local level income data by combining machine learning, Earth Observation, and Geographic Information System. More exactly, we estimated the income per capita by help of a machine learning model for 46 cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants, based on the National Polar-orbiting Partnership–Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) nighttime satellite images from 2012–2018. For the automation of calculation, a new ModelBuilder type tool was developed within the ArcGIS software called EO-Incity (Earth Observation–Income city). The sum of light (SOL) data extracted by means of the EO-Incity tool and the observed income data were integrated in an algorithm within the MATLAB software in order to calculate a transfer equation and the average error. The results achieved were subsequently reintegrated in EO-Incity and used for the estimation of the income value at local level. The regression analyses highlighted a stable and strong relationship between SOL and income for the analyzed cities. The EO-Incity tool and the machine learning model proved to be efficient in the real-time estimation of the income at local level. When integrated in the information systems specific for smart cities, they can serve as a support for decision-making in order to fight poverty and reduce social inequalities.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3138  
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Author Zou, C.-Z.; Zhou, L.; Lin, L.; Sun, N.; Chen, Y.; Flynn, L.E.; Zhang, B.; Cao, C.; Iturbide-Sanchez, F.; Beck, T.; Yan, B.; Kalluri, S.; Bai, Y.; Blonski, S.; Choi, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gu, Y.; Hao, X.; Li, W.; Liang, D.; Niu, J.; Shao, X.; Strow, L.; Tobin, D.C.; Tremblay, D.; Uprety, S.; Wang, W.; Xu, H.; Yang, H.; Goldberg, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Reprocessed Suomi NPP Satellite Observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 18 Pages 2891  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The launch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and its follow-on NOAA Joint Polar Satellite Systems (JPSS) satellites marks the beginning of a new era of operational satellite observations of the Earth and atmosphere for environmental applications with high spatial resolution and sampling rate. The S-NPP and JPSS are equipped with five instruments, each with advanced design in Earth sampling, including the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES). Among them, the ATMS is the new generation of microwave sounder measuring temperature profiles from the surface to the upper stratosphere and moisture profiles from the surface to the upper troposphere, while CrIS is the first of a series of advanced operational hyperspectral sounders providing more accurate atmospheric and moisture sounding observations with higher vertical resolution for weather and climate applications. The OMPS instrument measures solar backscattered ultraviolet to provide information on the concentrations of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, and VIIRS provides global observations of a variety of essential environmental variables over the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and ocean with visible and infrared imagery. The CERES instrument measures the solar energy reflected by the Earth, the longwave radiative emission from the Earth, and the role of cloud processes in the Earth’s energy balance. Presently, observations from several instruments on S-NPP and JPSS-1 (re-named NOAA-20 after launch) provide near real-time monitoring of the environmental changes and improve weather forecasting by assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. Envisioning the need for consistencies in satellite retrievals, improving climate reanalyses, development of climate data records, and improving numerical weather forecasting, the NOAA/Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been reprocessing the S-NPP observations for ATMS, CrIS, OMPS, and VIIRS through their life cycle. This article provides a summary of the instrument observing principles, data characteristics, reprocessing approaches, calibration algorithms, and validation results of the reprocessed sensor data records. The reprocessing generated consistent Level-1 sensor data records using unified and consistent calibration algorithms for each instrument that removed artificial jumps in data owing to operational changes, instrument anomalies, contaminations by anomaly views of the environment or spacecraft, and other causes. The reprocessed sensor data records were compared with and validated against other observations for a consistency check whenever such data were available. The reprocessed data will be archived in the NOAA data center with the same format as the operational data and technical support for data requests. Such a reprocessing is expected to improve the efficiency of the use of the S-NPP and JPSS satellite data and the accuracy of the observed essential environmental variables through either consistent satellite retrievals or use of the reprocessed data in numerical data assimilations.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3200  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Dimming of Lights in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 17 Pages 2851  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; VIIRS; Day-night band (DNB); Nighttime lights; COVID-19; Pandemic; VIIRS-DNB  
  Abstract A satellite survey of the cumulative radiant emissions from electric lighting across China reveals a large radiance decline in lighting from December 2019 to February 2020—the peak of the lockdown established to suppress the spread of COVID-19 infections. To illustrate the changes, an analysis was also conducted on a reference set from a year prior to the pandemic. In the reference period, the majority (62%) of China’s population lived in administrative units that became brighter in March 2019 relative to December 2018. The situation reversed in February 2020, when 82% of the population lived in administrative units where lighting dimmed as a result of the pandemic. The dimming has also been demonstrated with difference images for the reference and pandemic image pairs, scattergrams, and a nightly temporal profile. The results indicate that it should be feasible to monitor declines and recovery in economic activity levels using nighttime lighting as a proxy.  
  Address Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA; celvidge(at)mines.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3134  
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