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Author Vandersteen, J.; Kark, S.; Sorrell, K.; Levin, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the Impact of Light Pollution on Sea Turtle Nesting Using Ground-Based Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 11 Pages 1785  
  Keywords Animals; Skyglow  
  Abstract Remote sensing of anthropogenic light has substantial potential to quantify light pollution levels and understand its impact on a wide range of taxa. Currently, the use of space-borne night-time sensors for measuring the actual light pollution that animals experience is limited. This is because most night-time satellite imagery and space-borne sensors measure the light that is emitted or reflected upwards, rather than horizontally, which is often the light that is primarily perceived by animals. Therefore, there is an important need for developing and testing ground-based remote sensing techniques and methods. In this study, we aimed to address this gap by examining the potential of ground photography to quantify the actual light pollution perceived by animals, using sea turtles as a case study. We conducted detailed ground measurements of night-time brightness around the coast of Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef of Australia, and an important sea turtle rookery, using a calibrated DSLR Canon camera with an 8 mm fish-eye lens. The resulting hemispheric photographs were processed using the newly developed Sky Quality Camera (SQC) software to extract brightness metrics. Furthermore, we quantified the factors determining the spatial and temporal variation in night-time brightness as a function of environmental factors (e.g., moon light, cloud cover, and land cover) and anthropogenic features (e.g., artificial light sources and built-up areas). We found that over 80% of the variation in night-time brightness was explained by the percentage of the moon illuminated, moon altitude, as well as cloud cover. Anthropogenic and geographic factors (e.g., artificial lighting and the percentage of visible sky) were especially important in explaining the remaining variation in measured brightness under moonless conditions. Night-time brightness variables, land cover, and rock presence together explained over 60% of the variation in sea turtle nest locations along the coastline of Heron Island, with more nests found in areas of lower light pollution. The methods we developed enabled us to overcome the limitations of commonly used ground/space borne remote sensing techniques, which are not well suited for measuring the light pollution to which animals are exposed. The findings of this study demonstrate the applicability of ground-based remote sensing techniques in accurately and efficiently measuring night-time brightness to enhance our understanding of ecological light pollution.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2975  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cox, D.T.C.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Dzurjak, S.A.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title National Scale Spatial Variation in Artificial Light at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 1591  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; United Kingdom; National parks; skyglow; VIIRS-DNB; albedo; landcover; light emissions; light pollution; protected areas; skyglow; sky brightness; urbanization  
  Abstract The disruption to natural light regimes caused by outdoor artificial nighttime lighting has significant impacts on human health and the natural world. Artificial light at night takes two forms, light emissions and skyglow (caused by the scattering of light by water, dust and gas molecules in the atmosphere). Key to determining where the biological impacts from each form are likely to be experienced is understanding their spatial occurrence, and how this varies with other landscape factors. To examine this, we used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band and the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, to determine covariation in (a) light emissions, and (b) skyglow, with human population density, landcover, protected areas and roads in Britain. We demonstrate that, although artificial light at night increases with human density, the amount of light per person decreases with increasing urbanization (with per capita median direct emissions three times greater in rural than urban populations, and per capita median skyglow eleven times greater). There was significant variation in artificial light at night within different landcover types, emphasizing that light pollution is not a solely urban issue. Further, half of English National Parks have higher levels of skyglow than light emissions, indicating their failure to buffer biodiversity from pressures that artificial lighting poses. The higher per capita emissions in rural than urban areas provide different challenges and opportunities for mitigating the negative human health and environmental impacts of light pollution.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK; d.t.c.cox(at )exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2920  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cox, D.T.C.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Dzurjak, S.A.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title National Scale Spatial Variation in Artificial Light at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 1591  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The disruption to natural light regimes caused by outdoor artificial nighttime lighting has significant impacts on human health and the natural world. Artificial light at night takes two forms, light emissions and skyglow (caused by the scattering of light by water, dust and gas molecules in the atmosphere). Key to determining where the biological impacts from each form are likely to be experienced is understanding their spatial occurrence, and how this varies with other landscape factors. To examine this, we used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band and the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, to determine covariation in (a) light emissions, and (b) skyglow, with human population density, landcover, protected areas and roads in Britain. We demonstrate that, although artificial light at night increases with human density, the amount of light per person decreases with increasing urbanization (with per capita median direct emissions three times greater in rural than urban populations, and per capita median skyglow eleven times greater). There was significant variation in artificial light at night within different landcover types, emphasizing that light pollution is not a solely urban issue. Further, half of English National Parks have higher levels of skyglow than light emissions, indicating their failure to buffer biodiversity from pressures that artificial lighting poses. The higher per capita emissions in rural than urban areas provide different challenges and opportunities for mitigating the negative human health and environmental impacts of light pollution.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2926  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liu, Q.; Sha, D.; Liu, W.; Houser, P.; Zhang, L.; Hou, R.; Lan, H.; Flynn, C.; Lu, M.; Hu, T.; Yang, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatiotemporal Patterns of COVID-19 Impact on Human Activities and Environment in Mainland China Using Nighttime Light and Air Quality Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 1576  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought drastic changes to people’s daily lives, work, and the surrounding environment. Investigations into these changes are very important for decision makers to implement policies on economic loss assessments and stimulation packages, city reopening, resilience of the environment, and arrangement of medical resources. In order to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on people’s lives, activities, and the natural environment, this paper investigates the spatial and temporal characteristics of Nighttime Light (NTL) radiance and Air Quality Index (AQI) before and during the pandemic in mainland China. The monthly mean NTL radiance, and daily and monthly mean AQI are calculated over mainland China and compared before and during the pandemic. Our results show that the monthly average NTL brightness is much lower during the quarantine period than before. This study categorizes NTL into three classes: residential area, transportation, and public facilities and commercial centers, with NTL radiance ranges of 5–20, 20–40 and greater than 40 (nW· cm−2 · sr−1 ), respectively. We found that the Number of Pixels (NOP) with NTL detection increased in the residential area and decreased in the commercial centers for most of the provinces after the shutdown, while transportation and public facilities generally stayed the same. More specifically, we examined these factors in Wuhan, where the first confirmed cases were reported, and where the earliest quarantine measures were taken. Observations and analysis of pixels associated with commercial centers were observed to have lower NTL radiance values, indicating a dimming behavior, while residential area pixels recorded increased levels of brightness after the beginning of the lockdown. The study also discovered a significant decreasing trend in the daily average AQI for mainland China from January to March 2020, with cleaner air in most provinces during February and March, compared to January 2020. In conclusion, the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 has had a crucial impact on people’s daily lives and activity ranges through the increased implementation of lockdown and quarantine policies. On the other hand, the air quality of mainland China has improved with the reduction in non-essential industries and motor vehicle usage. This evidence demonstrates that the Chinese government has executed very stringent quarantine policies to deal with the pandemic. The decisive response to control the spread of COVID-19 provides a reference for other parts of the world.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3202  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sun, L.; Tang, L.; Shao, G.; Qiu, Q.; Lan, T.; Shao, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Machine Learning-Based Classification System for Urban Built-Up Areas Using Multiple Classifiers and Data Sources Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 91  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Information about urban built-up areas is important for urban planning and management. However, obtaining accurate information about urban built-up areas is a challenge. This study developed a general-purpose built-up area intelligent classification (BAIC) system that supports various types of data and classifiers. All of the steps in the BAIC were implemented using Python modules including Numpy, Pandas, matplotlib, and scikit-learn. We used the BAIC to conduct a classification experiment that involved seven types of input data; namely, Point of Interest (POI), Road Network (RN), nighttime light (NTL), a combination of POI and RN data (POIRN), a combination of POI and NTL data (POINTL), a combination of RN and NTL data (RNNTL), and a combination of POI, RN, and NTL data (POIRNNTL), and five classifiers, namely, Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forests (RF), Gradient Boosted Decision Trees (GBDT), and AdaBoost. The results show the following: (1) among the 35 combinations of the five classifiers and seven types of input data, the overall accuracy (OA) ranged from 76 to 89%, F1 values ranged from 0.73 to 0.86, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) ranged from 0.83 to 0.95. The largest F1 value and OA were obtained using the POIRNNTL data and AdaBoost, while the largest AUC was obtained using POIRNNTL and POINTL data against AdaBoost, LR, and RF; and (2) the advantages of the BAIC include its support for multi-source input data, its objective accuracy assessment, and its robust classifiers. The BAIC can quickly and efficiently realize the automatic classification of urban built-up areas at a reasonably low cost and can be readily applied to other urban areas in the world where any kind of POI, RN, or NTL data coverage is available. The results of this study are expected to provide timely and effective reference information for urban planning and urban management departments, and could also potentially be used to develop large-scale maps of urban built-up areas in the future.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2800  
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