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Author Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23  
  Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED  
  Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.  
  Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819  
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Author Shillo, R., & Halevy, A. H. url  openurl
  Title Interaction of photoperiod and temperature in flowering-control of Gypsophila paniculata L Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Scientia Horticulturae Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 385-393  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Long day promotes flowering of Gysophila paniculata L cultivar ‘Bristol Fairy’. Repeated treatments with GA3 or GA4 + 7 in short days did not promote flowering. The long photoperiod is effective only at relatively high temperatures. At night temperatures below 12°C, the plants remain vegetative even in long days. Efficient artificial lighting is from incandescent lamps at 60–100 lux. Fluorescent lighting (Cool-White) is not effective. Lighting of 4 hours as a night-break or at the end of the night were equally effective, but 4 hours lighting as a day-extension was less effective. Whole-night lighting promoted flowering more than any of the 4-hour lighting regimes. Cyclic lighting of one third light in each cycle promoted flowering to the same extent as continuous lighting. Light intensity during the day has a decisive effect on flower production.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2370  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C. D.; Baugh, K. E.; Dietz, J. B.; Bland, T.; Sutton, P. C.; Kroehl, H. W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Radiance calibration of DMSP-OLS low-light imaging data of human settlements. Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 77-88  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; DMSP; DMSP-OLS; satellite; night lights; light pollution  
  Abstract Nocturnal lighting is a primary method for enabling human activity. Outdoor lighting is used extensively worldwide in residential, commercial, industrial, public facilities, and roadways. A radiance calibrated nighttime lights image of the United States has been assembled from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). The satellite observation of the location and intensity of nocturnal lighting provide a unique view of humanities presence and can be used as a spatial indicator for other variables that are more difficult to observe at a global scale. Examples include the modeling of population density and energy related greenhouse gas emissions.  
  Address NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 930  
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Author Neale, W., Marr, J., McKelvey, N., & Kuzel, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1005 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Moonlight; Vision  
  Abstract When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle. These luminance readings yielding the change in reflected light attributable to the moon. In addition to the quantitative measurement of light contributed by the moon, documentation to the change in visibility of objects and pedestrians located on the roadway were documented through photographs. Calibrated nighttime photographs were taken from the driver’s perspective inside the vehicle with low beam headlamps activated. The photographs were analyzed after testing to determine how the light intensity of the pixels in the photographs changed at each thirty-minute interval due to the additional light contribution from the moon. The results of this testing indicate that the quantifiable change in visibility distance attributable to added moonlight was negligible, and in real-world driving situations, the effect of additional illumination from a full moon would be unlikely to affect the detection of an object or pedestrian in or near the travel lane of the roadway.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2355  
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Author Rea, M.; Skinner, N.; Bullough, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Novel Barricade Warning Light System Using Wireless Communications Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-5036 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume In press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Safety  
  Abstract Workers in construction and transportation sectors are at increased risk for work-related injuries and fatalities by nearby traffic. Barricade-mounted warning lights meeting current specifications do not always provide consistent and adequate visual guidance to drivers and can contribute to glare and reduced safety. Through an implementation of sensors and wireless communications, a novel, intelligent set of warning lights and a tablet-based interface were developed. The lights modulate between 100% and 10% of maximum intensity rather than between 100% and off in order to improve visual guidance and adjust their overall intensity based on ambient conditions. The lights can be synchronized or operated in sequential flash patterns at any frequency between 1 and 4 Hz, and sequential patterns automatically update based on global positioning satellite (GPS) locations displayed in the control interface. A successful field demonstration of the system verified that its functions were viewed favorably by transportation safety personnel.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2117  
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