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Author Owsley, C.
Title Impact of Cataract Surgery on Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement by Older Adults Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume (down) 288 Issue 7 Pages 841
Keywords cataracts
Abstract We report the results of the Impact of Cataracts on Mobility (ICOM) project that was designed to address the question, for those older drivers who have cataract, what is the impact of cataract surgery on crash rate in the 4 years following surgery compared with those who have cataract who do not elect surgery? Strengths of this study design are the use of a comparison group of patients with cataract who do not undergo surgery followed prospectively over the same time period and the statistical adjustment for potential differences in the surgery and no surgery groups at baseline that could serve as confounders for the hypothesized effect. Using a randomized design would have been unethical since cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation is an accepted and proven standard of care.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0098-7484 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 170
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Author Batra, T.; Malik, I.; Prabhat, A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V.
Title Sleep in unnatural times: illuminated night negatively affects sleep and associated hypothalamic gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume (down) 287 Issue 1928 Pages 20192952
Keywords Animals; bird; dim light at night; gene expression; hypothalamus; sleep; zebra finch
Abstract We investigated the effects of exposure at ecologically relevant levels of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep and the 24 h hypothalamic expression pattern of genes involved in the circadian timing (per2, bmal1, reverb-beta, cry1, ror-alpha, clock) and sleep regulatory pathways (cytokines: tlr4, tnf-alpha, il-1beta, nos; Ca(2+)-dependent pathway: camk2, sik3, nr3a; cholinergic receptor, achm3) in diurnal female zebra finches. Birds were exposed to 12 h light (150 lux) coupled with 12 h of absolute darkness or of 5 lux dim light for three weeks. dLAN fragmented the nocturnal sleep in reduced bouts, and caused sleep loss as evidenced by reduced plasma oxalate levels. Under dLAN, the 24 h rhythm of per2, but not bmal1 or reverb-beta, showed a reduced amplitude and altered peak expression time; however, clock, ror-alpha and cry1 expressions showed an abolition of the 24 h rhythm. Decreased tlr4, il-1beta and nos, and the lack of diurnal difference in achm3 messenger RNA levels suggested an attenuated inhibition of the arousal system (hence, awake state promotion) under dLAN. Similarly, changes in camk2, sik3 and nr3a expressions suggested dLAN-effects on Ca(2+)-dependent sleep-inducing pathways. These results demonstrate dLAN-induced negative effects on sleep and associated hypothalamic molecular pathways, and provide insights into health risks of illuminated night exposures to diurnal animals.
Address Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32517617 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2995
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Author Elgert, C.; Hopkins, J.; Kaitala, A.; Candolin, U.
Title Reproduction under light pollution: maladaptive response to spatial variation in artificial light in a glow-worm Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. B.
Volume (down) 287 Issue 1931 Pages 20200806
Keywords Animals; glow-worms; Lampyris noctiluca; insects; maladaptive response; reproduction
Abstract The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca—which glow in the night to attract males—mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.
Address Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; christina.elgert(at)helsinki.fi
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3049
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Author Winger, B.M.; Weeks, B.C.; Farnsworth, A.; Jones, A.W.; Hennen, M.; Willard, D.E.
Title Nocturnal flight-calling behaviour predicts vulnerability to artificial light in migratory birds Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume (down) 286 Issue 1900 Pages 20190364
Keywords animals
Abstract Understanding interactions between biota and the built environment is increasingly important as human modification of the landscape expands in extent and intensity. For migratory birds, collisions with lighted structures are a major cause of mortality, but the mechanisms behind these collisions are poorly understood. Using 40 years of collision records of passerine birds, we investigated the importance of species' behavioural ecologies in predicting rates of building collisions during nocturnal migration through Chicago, IL and Cleveland, OH, USA. We found that the use of nocturnal flight calls is an important predictor of collision risk in nocturnally migrating passerine birds. Species that produce flight calls during nocturnal migration tended to collide with buildings more than expected given their local abundance, whereas those that do not use such communication collided much less frequently. Our results suggest that a stronger attraction response to artificial light at night in species that produce flight calls may mediate these differences in collision rates. Nocturnal flight calls probably evolved to facilitate collective decision-making during navigation, but this same social behaviour may now exacerbate vulnerability to a widespread anthropogenic disturbance. Our results also suggest that social behaviour during migration may reflect poorly understood differences in navigational mechanisms across lineages of birds.
Address 4 Gantz Family Collections Center, The Field Museum , 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 , USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30940055 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2287
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Author Ulgezen, Z.N.; Kapyla, T.; Meerlo, P.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.; Dominoni, D.M.
Title The preference and costs of sleeping under light at night in forest and urban great tits Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume (down) 286 Issue 1905 Pages 20190872
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon associated with worldwide urbanization. In birds, broad-spectrum white ALAN can have disruptive effects on activity patterns, metabolism, stress response and immune function. There has been growing research on whether the use of alternative light spectra can reduce these negative effects, but surprisingly, there has been no study to determine which light spectrum birds prefer. To test such a preference, we gave urban and forest great tits (Parus major) the choice where to roost using pairwise combinations of darkness, white light or green dim light at night (1.5 lux). Birds preferred to sleep under artificial light instead of darkness, and green was preferred over white light. In a subsequent experiment, we investigated the consequence of sleeping under a particular light condition, and measured birds' daily activity levels, daily energy expenditure (DEE), oxalic acid as a biomarker for sleep debt and cognitive abilities. White light affected activity patterns more than green light. Moreover, there was an origin-dependent response to spectral composition: in urban birds, the total daily activity and night activity did not differ between white and green light, while forest birds were more active under white than green light. We also found that individuals who slept under white and green light had higher DEE. However, there were no differences in oxalic acid levels or cognitive abilities between light treatments. Thus, we argue that in naive birds that had never encountered light at night, white light might disrupt circadian rhythms more than green light. However, it is possible that the negative effects of ALAN on sleep and cognition might be observed only under intensities higher than 1.5 lux. These results suggest that reducing the intensity of light pollution as well as tuning the spectrum towards long wavelengths may considerably reduce its impact.
Address 5 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31213184; PMCID:PMC6599990 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2557
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