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Author Wehr, T.A.; Aeschbach, D.; Duncan, W.C.
Title Evidence for a biological dawn and dusk in the human circadian timing system Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiology
Volume (down) 535 Issue 3 Pages 937-951
Keywords Human Health
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ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 831
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Author Pendoley, K.; Kamrowski, R.
Title Influence of horizon elevation on the sea-finding behaviour of hatchling flatback turtles exposed to artificial light glow Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume (down) 529 Issue Pages 279-288
Keywords Animals; Hatchling orientation; Artificial lighting; Horizon elevation; Marine turtle; Conservation management; Elevation; Industry; Coastal development; Sea turtle; Sea turtle conservation
Abstract Marine turtles are threatened globally by increasing coastal development. In particular, increased artificial lighting at the nesting beach has the potential to disrupt turtle breeding success. Few published data exist regarding the behaviour of the flatback turtle Natator depressus, a species endemic to Australia, in response to artificial light. Given the ongoing industrialisation of the Australian coastline, this study is a timely investigation into the orientation of flatback hatchlings exposed to light glow produced by lighting typically used in industrial settings. We recorded the orientation of hatchlings at the nesting beach on Barrow Island, Western Australia, exposed to 3 types of standard lighting — high-pressure sodium vapour (HPS), metal halide (MH), and fluorescent white (FW)—at 3 different intensities. The light array was positioned either behind a high dune (producing a high, dark silhouette; 16° elevation), or in a low creek bed (producing a low silhouette and bright horizon; 2° elevation). At medium and high light intensities of all 3 light types, hatchlings were significantly less ocean-oriented when exposed to light at 2° elevation compared to 16° elevation. This difference remained with glow from low-intensity MH light; however, there was no significant difference in orientation of hatchlings exposed to low- intensity HPS and FW light glow at either elevation. Our study emphasises the importance of horizon elevation cues in hatchling sea-finding. Since all species of marine turtles show similar sea-finding behaviour, our results have important implications for management of lighting adjacent to turtle nesting beaches in Australia and elsewhere, as coastal development continues.
Address Pendoley Environmental Pty Ltd, 12A Pitt Way, Booragoon, Western Australia 6154, Australia; ruth.kamrowski@penv.com.au
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Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1189
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Author Zeitzer, J.M.; Dijk, D.-J.; Kronauer, R.E.; Brown, E.N.; Czeisler, C.A.
Title Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 526 Issue 3 Pages 695-702
Keywords Human Health
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ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 839
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Author Stockl, A.L.; Ribi, W.A.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication The Journal of Comparative Neurology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Neurol
Volume (down) 524 Issue 1 Pages 160–175
Keywords vision, animals
Abstract Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths having considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology – the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. Interestingly, the overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 22362, Lund, Sweden
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ISSN 0021-9967 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26100612 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1190
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Author Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W.
Title Spotlight on fish: Light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume (down) 511 Issue Pages 516-522
Keywords Animals; Perca fluviatilis; Light pollution; Light intensity; Non-invasive hormone measurement; Fish
Abstract Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3 h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1087
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