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Author Sciezor, T.; Kubala, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Particulate matter as an amplifier for astronomical light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume (down) 444 Issue 3 Pages 2487-2493  
  Keywords atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods; data analysis; site testing  
  Abstract In this paper, we state that the main factor that influences seasonal changes in the brightness of the cloudless, moonless, light-polluted night sky is primarily particulate matter, emitted mainly from low-emission sources, especially in winter. This effect is particularly noticeable in Cracow and its surroundings, one of the places in Europe that is most polluted by particulate matter. Measurements taken over a period of one year have allowed us to show a linear relationship between the concentration of particulate matter and the brightness of the clear, cloudless night sky. We have also found similar correlations in other, industrialized areas of Poland, as well as at the Mount Suhora Astronomical Observatory. We believe that the factor described here should be taken into account when planning the construction of new astronomical observatories, especially those located near large urban areas.  
  Address Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of the Environmental Engineering, Warszawska 24, P-31-155 Kraków, Poland  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 366  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume (down) 443 Issue 4 Pages 3665-3674  
  Keywords Skyglow; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical  
  Abstract The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 538  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow: a retrieval of the approximate radiant intensity function of ground-based light sources Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume (down) 439 Issue 4 Pages 3405-3413  
  Keywords radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing; skyglow; modeling  
  Abstract The angular distribution of the light emitted from a city is an important source of information about public lighting systems and it also plays a key role in modelling the skyglow. Usually, the upwardly directed radiation is characterized through a parametrized emission function – a semi-empirical approach as a reasonable approximation that allows for fast computations. However, theoretical or experimental retrievals of emission characteristics are extremely difficult to obtain because of both the complexity of radiative transfer methods and/or the lack of highly specialized measuring devices.

Our research has been conducted with the specific objective to identify an efficient theoretical technique for retrieval of the emission pattern of ground-based light sources in order to determine the optimum values of the scaling parameters of the Garstang function. In particular, the input data involve the zenith luminance or radiance with horizontal illuminance or irradiance. Theoretical ratios of zenith luminance LV(0) to horizontal illuminance DV are calculated for a set of distances d that separate a hypothetical observer from the light source (a city or town). This approach is advantageous because inexpensive traditional equipment can be used to obtain the mean values of the Garstang parameters. Furthermore, it can also be applied to other parametrizable emission functions and to any measuring site, even one with a masked horizon.
 
  Address Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic  
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  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 326  
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Author Sciezor, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new astronomical method for determining the brightness of the night sky and its application to study long-term changes in the level of light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume (down) 435 Issue 1 Pages 303-310  
  Keywords light pollution methods; data analysis methods; observational site testing; comets; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract In this paper, I present a new method that has been developed for determining the brightness of a cloudless night sky, on the basis of widely available amateur observations of comets. The tests show the correctness of the method, which makes it possible to determine the level of light pollution, defined as the brightness of the artificial sky glow, through the use of the archival observations of comets. The use of data bases of comet observations in Poland in the period 1994–2009 has led to a positive verification of the known model map of the brightness of the night sky. Also, it has been possible to find changes in the level of light pollution in this period, at the selected observation sites.  
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  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 266  
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Author Foster, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neurobiology: bright blue times Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 433 Issue 7027 Pages 698-699  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/radiation effects; Color Perception/physiology/*radiation effects; Humans; *Light; Light Signal Transduction/*radiation effects; Mice; Retinal Ganglion Cells/cytology/physiology/radiation effects; Retinaldehyde/chemistry/metabolism; Rod Opsins/*metabolism; NASA Discipline Space Human Factors; Non-NASA Center  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15716938 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 750  
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