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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C.
Title Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume (down) 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696
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Author Jiang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Tian, G.
Title Estimating nitrogen oxides emissions at city scale in China with a nightlight remote sensing model Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume (down) 544 Issue Pages 1119-1127
Keywords Remote sensing
Abstract Increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over the fast developing regions have been of great concern due to their critical associations with the aggravated haze and climate change. However, little geographically specific data exists for estimating spatio-temporal trends of NOx emissions. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of NOx emissions, a spatially explicit approach based on the continuous satellite observations of artificial nighttime stable lights (NSLs) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) was developed to estimate NOx emissions from the largest emission source of fossil fuel combustion. The NSL based model was established with three types of data including satellite data of nighttime stable lights, geographical data of administrative boundaries, and provincial energy consumptions in China, where a significant growth of NOx emission has experienced during three policy stages corresponding to the 9th-11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 1995-2010). The estimated national NOx emissions increased by 8.2% per year during the study period, and the total annual NOx emissions in China estimated by the NSL-based model were approximately 4.1%-13.8% higher than the previous estimates. The spatio-temporal variations of NOx emissions at city scale were then evaluated by the Moran's I indices. The global Moran's I indices for measuring spatial agglomerations of China's NOx emission increased by 50.7% during 1995-2010. Although the inland cities have shown larger contribution to the emission growth than the more developed coastal cities since 2005, the High-High clusters of NOx emission located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta should still be the major focus of NOx mitigation. Our results indicate that the readily available DMSP/OLS nighttime stable lights based model could be an easily accessible and effective tool for achieving strategic decision making toward NOx reduction.
Address College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26779958 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1335
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Author Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Barden, M.; Jones, A.M.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S.; Vinther, J.
Title An atmospheric radiation model for Cerro Paranal: I. The optical spectral range* Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A
Volume (down) 543 Issue Pages A92
Keywords atmospheric effects; site testing; radiative transfer; radiation mechanisms: general; scattering; techniques; spectroscopic; modeling; observatories; Cerro Paranal
Abstract Aims. The Earth’s atmosphere affects ground-based astronomical observations. Scattering, absorption, and radiation processes deteriorate the signal-to-noise ratio of the data received. For scheduling astronomical observations it is, therefore, important to accurately estimate the wavelength-dependent effect of the Earth’s atmosphere on the observed flux.

Methods. In order to increase the accuracy of the exposure time calculator of the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, an atmospheric model was developed as part of the Austrian ESO In-Kind contribution. It includes all relevant components, such as scattered moonlight, scattered starlight, zodiacal light, atmospheric thermal radiation and absorption, and non-thermal airglow emission. This paper focuses on atmospheric scattering processes that mostly affect the blue (<0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime, and airglow emission lines and continuum that dominate the red (>0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime. While the former is mainly investigated by means of radiative transfer models, the intensity and variability of the latter is studied with a sample of 1186 VLT FORS&#8201;1 spectra.

Results. For a set of parameters such as the object altitude angle, Moon-object angular distance, ecliptic latitude, bimonthly period, and solar radio flux, our model predicts atmospheric radiation and transmission at a requested resolution. A comparison of our model with the FORS&#8201;1 spectra and photometric data for the night-sky brightness from the literature, suggest a model accuracy of about 20%. This is a significant improvement with respect to existing predictive atmospheric models for astronomical exposure time calculators.
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ISSN 0004-6361 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 274
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Author Bruning, A.; Hölker, F.; Franke, S.; Kleiner, W.; Kloas, W.
Title Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume (down) 543 Issue Pt A Pages 214-222
Keywords Animals; Fish; Gonadotropins; Light pollution; Melatonin; Perca fluviatilis; Reproduction; Spectral sensitivity
Abstract The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0lx, 1lx, 10lx, 100lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: werner.kloas(at)igb-berlin.de
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26584071 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1302
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Author Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W.
Title Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 543 Issue Pages 214-222
Keywords Animals
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1294
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