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Author Gaston, K.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.
Title Quantifying the erosion of natural darkness in the global protected area system Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords concervation; amenazas; brillo celestial; contaminación; light; luz; management; manejo; pollution; reservas; reserves; sky glow; threats
Abstract The nighttime light environment of much of the earth has been transformed by the introduction of electric lighting. This impact continues to spread with growth in the human population and extent of urbanization. This has profound consequences for organismal physiology and behavior and affects abundances and distributions of species, community structure, and likely ecosystem functions and processes. Protected areas play key roles in buffering biodiversity from a wide range of anthropogenic pressures. We used a calibration of a global satellite data set of nighttime lights to determine how well they are fulfilling this role with regard to artificial nighttime lighting. Globally, areas that are protected tend to be darker at night than those that are not, and, with the exception of Europe, recent regional declines in the proportion of the area that is protected and remains dark have been small. However, much of these effects result from the major contribution to overall protected area coverage by the small proportion of individual protected areas that are very large. Thus, in Europe and North America high proportions of individual protected areas (>17%) have exhibited high levels of nighttime lighting in all recent years, and in several regions (Europe, Asia, South and Central America) high proportions of protected areas (32-42%) have had recent significant increases in nighttime lighting. Limiting and reversing the erosion of nighttime darkness in protected areas will require routine consideration of nighttime conditions when designating and establishing new protected areas; establishment of appropriate buffer zones around protected areas where lighting is prohibited; and landscape level reductions in artificial nighttime lighting, which is being called for in general to reduce energy use and economic costs.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25693660 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1108
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Sahin, L.; Wood, B.; Plitnick, B.
Title Light at Night and Measures of Alertness and Performance: Implications for Shift Workers Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biological Research for Nursing Abbreviated Journal Biol Res Nurs
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; GO/NOGO test; alertness; melatonin; red light; shift work
Abstract Rotating-shift workers, particularly those working at night, are likely to experience sleepiness, decreased productivity, and impaired safety while on the job. Light at night has been shown to have acute alerting effects, reduce sleepiness, and improve performance. However, light at night can also suppress melatonin and induce circadian disruption, both of which have been linked to increased health risks. Previous studies have shown that long-wavelength (red) light exposure increases objective and subjective measures of alertness at night, without suppressing nocturnal melatonin. This study investigated whether exposure to red light at night would not only increase measures of alertness but also improve performance. It was hypothesized that exposure to both red (630 nm) and white (2,568 K) lights would improve performance but that only white light would significantly affect melatonin levels. Seventeen individuals participated in a 3-week, within-subjects, nighttime laboratory study. Compared to remaining in dim light, participants had significantly faster reaction times in the GO/NOGO test after exposure to both red light and white light. Compared to dim light exposure, power in the alpha and alpha-theta regions was significantly decreased after exposure to red light. Melatonin levels were significantly suppressed by white light only. Results show that not only can red light improve measures of alertness, but it can also improve certain types of performance at night without affecting melatonin levels. These findings could have significant practical applications for nurses; red light could help nurses working rotating shifts maintain nighttime alertness, without suppressing melatonin or changing their circadian phase.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, NY, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1099-8004 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25697165 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1110
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Author Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.
Title Impacts of artificial lighting on bats: a review of challenges and solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; bats
Abstract Light pollution is a major emerging issue in biodiversity conservation, and has important implications for policy development and strategic planning. Although research is now addressing the negative impacts of anthropogenic noise on biota, less attention has been paid to the effects of light pollution. Changes in lighting technology have led to a diverse range of emerging low energy light types and a trend towards the increased use of white light. Light pollution affects ecological interactions across a range of taxa and has adverse effects on behaviours such as foraging, reproduction and communication. Almost a quarter of bat species globally are threatened and the key underlying threat to populations is pressure on resources from increasing human populations. Being nocturnal, bats are among the taxa most likely to be affected by light pollution. In this paper we provide an overview of the current trends in artificial lighting followed by a review of the current evidence of the impacts of lighting on bat behaviour, particularly foraging, commuting, emergence, roosting and hibernation. We discuss taxon-specific effects and potential cumulative ecosystem level impacts. We conclude by summarising some potential strategies to minimise the impacts of lighting on bats and identify key gaps in knowledge and priority areas for future research.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1112
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Author Yu, B.; Shi, K.; Hu, Y.; Huang, C.
Title Poverty Evaluation Using NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Composite Data at the County Level in China Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Selected Topics in Appl. Earth Obs. and Rem. Sens.
Volume (up) Issue 2399416 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing; China; VIIRS; NPP; Suomi; DNB; poverty; development; Chongqing; integrated poverty index; average light index; national poor counties
Abstract Poverty has appeared as one of the long-term predicaments facing development of human society during the 21st century. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eliminate poverty. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of the nighttime light composite data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day–Night Band (DNB) carried by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite in estimating poverty at the county level in China. Two major experiments are involved in this study, which include 1) 38 counties of Chongqing city and 2) 2856 counties of China. The first experiment takes Chongqing as an example and combines 10 socioeconomic variables into an integrated poverty index (IPI). IPI is then used as a reference to validate the accuracy of poverty evaluation using the average light index (ALI) derived from NPP-VIIRS data. Linear regression and comparison of the class ranks have been employed to verify the correlation between ALI and IPI. The results show a good correlation between IPI and ALI, with a coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of 0.8554, and the class ranks of IPI and API show relative closeness at the county level. The second experiment examines all counties in China and makes a comparison between ALI values and national poor counties (NPC). The comparison result shows a general agreement between the NPC and the counties with low ALI values. This study reveals that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a useful tool for evaluating poverty at the county level in China.
Address Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IEEE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1130
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Author Shi, K.; Yu, B.; Hu, Y.; Huang, C.; Chen, Y.; Huang, Y.; Chen, Z.; Wu, J.
Title Modeling and mapping total freight traffic in China using NPP-VIIRS nighttime light composite data Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication GIScience & Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal GIScience & Remote Sensing
Volume (up) Issue Pages 1-16
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1548-1603 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1137
Permanent link to this record